are two ways to support Buddhism. One is known as amisapuja,
supporting through material offerings. These are the four requisites
of food, clothing, shelter and medicine. This is to support Buddhism
by giving material offerings to the Sangha of monks and nuns,
enabling them to live in reasonable comfort for the practice of
Dhamma. This fosters the direct realization of the Buddha's
teaching, in turn bringing continued prosperity to the Buddhist
Buddhism can be
likened to a tree. A tree has roots, a trunk, branches, twigs and
leaves. all the leaves and branches, including the trunk, depend on
the roots to absorb nutriment from the soil and send it out to them.
In the same way as the tree depends on the roots to sustain it, our
actions and our speech are like "branches" and "leaves," which
depend on the mind, the "root," absorbing nutriment, which it then
sends it out to the "trunk," "branches" and "leaves." These in turn
bear fruit as our speech and actions. whatever state the mind is in,
skillful or unskillful, it expresses that quality outwardly through
our actions and speech.
support of Buddhism through the practical application of the
teaching is the most important kind of support. For example, in the
ceremony of determining the precepts on observance days, the Teacher
describes those unskillful actions which should be avoided. But if
you simply go through the ceremony of determining the precepts
without reflecting on their meaning, progress is difficult. You will
be unable to find the true practice. The real support of Buddhism
must therefore be done through patipattipuja, the "offering"
of practice, cultivating true restraint, concentration and wisdom.
Then you will know what Buddhism is all about. If you don't
understand through practice you still won't know, even if you learn
the whole Tipitaka.
In the time of the
Buddha there was a monk known as Tuccho Pothila. Tuccho Pothila was
very learned, thoroughly versed in the scriptures and texts. He was
so famous that he was revered by people everywhere and had eighteen
monasteries under his care. When people heard the name "Tuccho
Pothila" they were awe-struck and nobody would dare question
anything he taught, so much did they revere his command of the
teachings. Tuccho Pothila was one of the Buddha's most learned
One day he went to
pay respects to the Buddha. As he was paying his respects, the
Buddha said, "Ah, hello, Venerable Empty Scripture!"...just like
that! They conversed for a while until it was time to go, and then,
as he was taking leave of the Buddha, the Buddha said, "Oh, leaving
now, Venerable Empty Scripture?"
That was all the
Buddha said. On arriving, "Oh, hello, Venerable Empty Scripture."
When it was time to go, "Ah, leaving now, Venerable Empty
Scripture?" The Buddha didn't expand on it, that was all the
teaching he gave. Tuccho Pothila, the eminent teacher, was puzzled,
" Why did the Buddha say that? What did he mean?" He thought and
thought, turning over everything he had learnt, until eventually he
realized..."It's true! "Venerable Empty Scripture" -- a monk who
studies but doesn't practice." When he looked into his heart he saw
that really he was no different from laypeople. Whatever they
aspired to he also aspired to, whatever they enjoyed he also
enjoyed. There was no real samana 
within him, no truly profound quality capable of firmly establishing
him in the Noble Way and providing true peace.
So he decided to
practice. But there was nowhere for him to go to. all the teachers
around were his own students, no-one would dare accept him. Usually
when people meet their teacher they become timid and deferential,
and so no-one would dare to become his teacher.
Finally he went to
see a certain young novice, who was enlightened, and asked to
practice under him. The novice said, "Yes, sure you can practice
with me, but only if you're sincere. If you're not sincere then I
won't accept you." Tuccho Pothila pledged himself as a student of
The novice then told
him to put on all his robes. Now there happened to be a muddy bog
nearby. When Tuccho Pothila had neatly put on all his robes,
expensive ones they were, too, the novice said, "Okay, now run down
into this muddy bog. If I don't tell you to stop, don't stop. If I
don't tell you to come out, don't come out. Okay...run!"
neatly robed, plunged into the bog. The novice didn't tell him to
stop until he was completely covered in mud. Finally he said, "You
can stop, now." ... so he stopped. "Okay, come on up!"... and so he
This clearly showed
that Tuccho Pothila had given up his pride. He was ready to accept
the teaching. If he wasn't ready to learn he wouldn't have run into
the bog like that, being such a famous teacher, but he did it. The
young novice, seeing this, knew that Tuccho Pothila was sincerely
determined to practice.
When Tuccho Pothila
had come out of the bog, the novice gave him the teaching. He taught
him to observe the sense objects, to know the mind and to know the
sense objects, using the simile of a man catching a lizard hiding in
a termite mound. If the mound had six holes in it, How would he
catch it? He would have to seal off five of the holes and leave just
one open. Then he would have to simply watch and wait, guarding that
one hole. When the lizard ran out he could catch it.
Observing the mind
is like this. Closing off the eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body, we
leave only the mind. To "close off" the senses means to restrain and
compose them, observing only the mind. Meditation is like catching
the lizard. We use sati to note the breath. Sati is
the quality of recollection, as in asking yourself, "What am I
doing?" Sampaja/i> is the awareness that "now I am doing such
and such." We observe the in and out breathing with sati and sampaja
This quality of
recollection is something that arises from practice, it's not
something that can be learnt from books. Know the feelings that
arise. The mind may be fairly inactive for a while and then a
feeling arises. Sati works in conjunction with these feelings,
recollecting them. There is sati, the recollection that "I will
speak," "I will go," "I will sit" and so on, and then there is
sampaja the awareness that "now I am walking," "I am lying down,"
"I am experiencing such and such a mood" with these two things, sati
and sampaja we can know our minds in the present moment. We will
know how the mind reacts to sense impressions.
That which is aware
of sense objects is called "mind." Sense objects "wander in" to the
mind. For instance, there is a sound, like the electric planer here.
It enters through the ear and travels inwards to the mind, which
acknowledges that it is the sound of an electric planer. That which
acknowledges the sound is called "mind."
Now this mind which
acknowledges the sound is still quite basic. It's just the average
mind. Perhaps annoyance arises within this one who acknowledges. We
must further train "the one who acknowledges" to become "the one who
knows" in accordance with the truth -- known as Buddho. If we don't
clearly know in accordance with the truth then we get annoyed at
sounds of people, cars, electric planer and so on. This is just the
ordinary, untrained mind acknowledging the sound with annoyance. It
knows in accordance with its preferences, not in accordance with the
truth. We must further train it to know with vision and insight, dassana,
the power of the refined mind, so
that it knows the sound as simply sound. If we don't cling to sound
there is annoyance. The sound arises and we simply note it. This is
called truly knowing the arising of sense objects. If we develop the
Buddho, clearly realizing the sound as sound, then it doesn't annoy
us. It arises according to conditions, it is not a being, an
individual, a self, an "us" or "them." It's just sound. The mind
This knowing is
called Buddho, the knowledge that is clear and penetrating. With
this knowledge we can let the sound be simply sound. It doesn't
disturb us unless we disturb it by thinking, "I don't want to hear
that sound, it's annoying." Suffering arises because of this
thinking. Right here is the cause of suffering, that we don't know
the truth of this matter, we haven't developed the Buddho. We are
not yet clear, not yet awake, not yet aware. This is the raw,
untrained mind. This mind is not yet truly useful to us.
Therefore the Buddha
taught that this mind must be trained and developed. We must develop
the mind just like we develop the body, but we do it in different
way. To develop the body we must exercise it, jogging in the morning
and evening and so on. This is exercising the body. As a result the
body becomes more agile, stronger, the respiratory and nervous
systems become more efficient. to exercise the mind we don't have to
move it around, but bring it to a halt, bring it to rest.
For instance, when
practicing meditation, we take an object, such as the in and out
breathing, as our foundation. This becomes the focus of our
attention and reflection. We note the breathing. To note the
breathing means to follow the breathing with awareness, noting its
rhythm, its coming and going. We put awareness into the breath,
following the natural in and out breathing and letting go of all
else. As a result of staying on one object of awareness, our mind
becomes refreshed. If we let the mind think of this, that and the
other there are many objects of awareness, the mind doesn't unify,
it doesn't come to rest.
To say the mind
stops means that it feels as if it's stopped, it doesn't go running
here and there. It's like having a sharp knife. If we use the knife
to cut at things indiscriminately, such as stones, bricks and grass,
our knife will quickly become blunt. We should use it for cutting
only the things it was meant for. Our mind is the same. If we let
the mind wander after thoughts and feelings which have no value or
use, the mind becomes tired and weak, If the mind has no energy,
wisdom will not arise, because the mind without energy is the mind
If the mind hasn't
stopped you can't clearly see the sense objects for what they are.
The knowledge that the mind is the mind, sense objects are merely
sense objects, is the root from which Buddhism has grown and
developed. This is the heart of Buddhism.
We must cultivate
this mind, develop it, training it in calm and insight. We train the
mind to have restraint and wisdom by letting the mind stop and
allowing wisdom to arise, by knowing the mind as it is.
You know, the way we
human beings are, the way we do things, are just like little
children. A child doesn't know anything. To an adult observing the
behavior of a child, the way it plays and jumps around, its actions
don't seem to have much purpose. If our mind is untrained it is like
a child. We speak without awareness and act without wisdom. We may
fall to ruin or cause untold harm and not even know it. A child is
ignorant, it plays as children do. Our ignorant mind is the same.
So we should train
this mind. The Buddha taught to train the mind, to teach the mind.
Even if we support Buddhism with the four requisites, our support is
still superficial, it reaches only the "bark" or "sapwood" of the
tree. The real support of Buddhism must be done through the
practice, nowhere else, training our actions, speech and thoughts
according to the teachings. This is much more fruitful. If we are
straight and honest, possessed of restraint and wisdom, our practice
will bring prosperity. There will be no cause for spite and
hostility. This is how our religion teaches us.
If we determine the
precepts simply out of tradition, then even though the Master
teaches the truth our practice will be deficient. We may be able to
study the teachings and repeat them, but we have to practice them if
we really want to understand. If we do not develop the practice,
this may well be an obstacle to our penetrating to the heart of
Buddhism for countless lifetimes to come. We will not understand the
essence of the Buddhist religion.
practice is like a key, the key of meditation. If we have the right
key in our hand, no matter how tightly the lock is closed, when we
take the key and turn it the lock falls open. If we have no key we
can't open the lock. We will never know what it is in the trunk.
Actually there are
two kinds of knowledge. One who knows the Dhamma doesn't simply
speak from memory, he speaks the truth. Worldly people usually speak
with conceit. For example, suppose there were two people who hadn't
seen each other for a long time, maybe they had gone to live in
different provinces or countries for a while, and then one day they
happened to meet on the train..."Oh! What a surprise. I was just
thinking of looking you up!"... Actually it's not true. Really they
hadn't thought of each other at all, but they say so out of
excitement. And so it becomes a lie. Yes, it's lying out of
heedlessness. This is lying without knowing it. It's a subtle form
of defilement, and it happens very often.
So with regard to
the mind, Tuccho Pothila followed the instructions of the novice:
breathing in, breathing out... mindfully aware of each
breath...until he saw the liar within him, the lying of his own
mind. He saw the defilements as they came up, just like the lizard
coming out of the termite mound. He saw them and perceived their
true nature as soon as they arose. He noticed how one minute the
mind would concoct one thing, the next moment something else.
Thinking is a
sankhata dhamma, something which is created or concocted from
supporting conditions. It's not asankhata dhamma, the unconditioned.
The well-trained mind, one with perfect awareness, does not concoct
mental states. This kind of mind penetrates to the Noble Truths and
transcends any need to depend on externals. To know the Noble Truths
is to know the truth. The proliferating mind tries to avoid this
truth, saying, "that's good" or "this is beautiful," but if there is
Buddho in the mind it can no longer deceive us, because we know the
mind as it is. The mind can no longer create deluded mental states,
because there is the clear awareness that all mental states are
unstable, imperfect, and a source of suffering to one who clings to
Wherever he went,
the one who knows was constantly in Tuccho Pothila's mind. He
observed the various creations and proliferation of the mind with
understanding. He saw how the mind lied in so many ways. He grasped
the essence of the practice, seeing that "This lying mind is the one
to watch -- this is the one which leads us into extremes of
happiness and suffering and causes us to endlessly spin around in
the cycle of Samsara, with its pleasure and pain, good and evil --
all because of this one." Tuccho Pothila realized the truth, and
grasped the essence of the practice, just like a man grasping the
tail of the lizard. He saw the workings of the deluded mind.
For us it's the
same. Only this mind is important. That's why they say to train the
mind. Now if the mind is the mind, what are we going to train it
with? By having continuous sati and sampaja/i> we will be able to
know the mind. This one who knows is a step beyond the mind, it is
that which knows the state of the mind. The mind is the mind. That
which knows the mind as simply mind is the one who knows. It is
above the mind. The one who knows is above the mind, and that is how
it is able to look after the mind, to teach the mind to know what is
right and what is wrong. In the end everything comes back to this
proliferating mind. If the mind is caught up in its proliferations
there is no awareness and the practice is fruitless.
So we must train
this mind to hear the Dhamma, to cultivate the Buddho, the clear and
radiant awareness, that which exists above and beyond the ordinary
mind and knows all that goes on within it. This is why we meditate
on the word Buddho, so that we can know the mind beyond the mind.
Just observe all the mind's movements, whether good or bad, until
the one who realizes that the mind is simply mind, not a self or a
person. This is called cittanupassana, Contemplation of Mind. 
Seeing in this way we will understand that the mind is Transient,
Imperfect and Ownerless. This mind doesn't belong to us.
We can summarize
thus: The mind is that which acknowledges sense objects; sense
objects are sense objects as distinct from the mind; the one who
knows both the mind and the sense objects for what they are. We must
use sati to constantly cleanse the mind. Everybody has sati, even a
cat has it when it's going to catch a mouse. A dog has it when it
barks at people. This is a form of sati, but it's not sati according
to the Dhamma. Everybody has sati, but there are different levels of
it, just as there are different levels of looking at things. Like
when I say to contemplate the body, some people say, "What is there
to contemplate in the body? Anybody can see it. Kesa we can see
already, loma we can see already...hair, nails, teeth and skin we
can see already. So what?"
This is how people
are. They can see the body alright but their seeing is faulty, they
don't see with the Buddho, the one who knows, the awakened one. They
only see the body in the ordinary way, they see it visually. Simply
to see the body is not enough. If we only see the body there is
trouble. You must see the body within the body, then things become
much clearer. Just seeing the body you get fooled by it, charmed by
its appearance. Not seeing Transience, Imperfection and
Ownerlessness, kamachanda  arises.
You become fascinated by forms, sounds, odors, flavors and feelings.
Seeing in this way is to see with the mundane eye of the flesh,
causing you to love and hate and discriminate into pleasing and
The Buddha taught
that this is not enough. You must see with the "mind's eye." See the
body within the body. If you really look into the body...Ugh! It's
so repulsive. There are today's things and yesterday's things all
mixed up in there, you can't tell what's what. Seeing in this way is
much clearer than to see with the carnal eye. Contemplate, see with
the eye of the mind, with the wisdom eye.
understandings differ like this. Some people don't know what there
is to contemplate in the Five Meditations, head hair, body hair,
nails, teeth and skin. They say they can see all those things
already, but they can only see them with the carnal eye, with this
"crazy eye" which only looks at the things it wants to look at. To
see the body in the body you have to look much clearer than that.
This is the practice
that can uproot clinging to the Five Khandhas. 
To uproot attachment is to uproot suffering, because attaching to
the Five Khandhas is the cause of suffering. If suffering arises it
is here, at the attachment to the Five Khandhas. It's not that the
Five Khandhas are in themselves suffering, but the clinging to them
as being one's own...that's suffering.
If you clearly see
the truth of these things through meditation practice, then
suffering becomes unwound, like a screw or a bolt. When the bolt is
unwound, it withdraws. The mind unwinds in the same way, letting go,
withdrawing from the obsession with good and evil, possessions,
praise and status, happiness and suffering.
If we don't know the
truth of these things it's like tightening the screw all the time.
It gets tighter and tighter until it's crushing you and you suffer
over everything. When you know how things are then you unwind the
screw. In Dhamma language we call this the arising of nibbida,
disenchantment. You become weary of things and lay down the
fascination with them. If you unwind in this way you will find
The cause of
suffering is to cling to things. So we should get rid of the cause,
cut off its root and not allow it to cause suffering again. People
have only one problem -- the problem of clinging. Just because of
this one thing people will kill each other. All problems, be they
individual, family or social, arise from this one root. Nobody
wins...they kill each other but in the end no-one gets anything. I
don't know why people keep on killing each other so pointlessly.
status, praise, happiness and suffering...these are the worldly
dhammas. These worldly dhammas engulf worldly beings. Worldly beings
are led around by the worldly dhammas: gain and loss, acclaim and
slander, status and loss of status, happiness and suffering. These
dhammas are trouble makers, if you don't reflect on their true
nature you will suffer. People even commit murder for the sake of
wealth, status or power. Why? Because they take them too seriously.
They get appointed to some position and it goes to their heads, like
the man who became headman of the village. After his appointment he
became "power-drunk." If any of his old friends came to see he'd
say, "Don't come around so often. Things aren't the same anymore."
The Buddha taught to
understand the nature of possessions, status, praise and happiness.
Take these things as they come but let them be. Don't let them go to
your head. If you don't really understand these things you become
fooled by your power, your children and relatives...by everything!
If you understand them clearly you know they're all impermanent
conditions. If you cling to them they become defiled.
All of these things
arise afterwards. When people are first born there are simply nama
and rupa, that's all. We add on the business of "Mr. Jones," "Miss
Smith" or whatever later on. This is done according to convention.
Still later there are the appendages of "Colonel," "General" and so
on. If we don't really understand these things we think they are
real and carry them around with us. We carry possessions, status,
name and rank around. If you have power you can call all the
tunes..."Take this one and execute him. Take that one and throw him
in jail" ... Rank gives power. This word "rank" here is where
clinging takes hold. As soon as people get rank they start giving
orders; right or wrong, they just act on their moods. So they go on
making the same old mistakes, deviating further and further from the
One who understands
the Dhamma won't behave like this. Good and evil have been in the
world since who knows when... if possessions and status come your
way then let them simply be the possessions and status, don't let
them become your identity. Just use them to fulfill your obligations
and leave it at that. You remain unchanged. If we have meditated on
these things, no matter what comes our way we will not be fooled by
it. We will be untroubled, unaffected, constant. Everything is
pretty much the same, after all.
This is how the
Buddha wanted us to understand things. No matter what you receive,
the mind adds nothing on to it. They appoint you a city
councilor..."Okay, so I'm a city councilor...but I'm not." They
appoint you head of the group..."Sure I am, but I'm not." Whatever
they make of you..."Yes I am, but I'm not!" In the end what are we
anyway? We all just die in the end. No matter what they make you, in
the end it's all the same. What can you say? If you can see things
in this way you will have a solid abiding and true contentment.
Nothing is changed.
This is not to be
fooled by things. Whatever comes your way, it's just conditions.
There's nothing which can entice a mind like this to create or
proliferate, to seduce it into greed, aversion or delusion.
Now this is to be a
true supporter of Buddhism. Whether you are among those who are
being supported (i.e. the Sangha) or those who are supporting (the
laity) please consider this thoroughly. Cultivate the Sila-Dhamma 
within you. This is the surest way to support Buddhism. To support
Buddhism with the offerings of food, shelter and medicine is good
also, but such offerings only reach the "sapwood" of Buddhism.
Please don't forget this. A tree has bark, sapwood and heartwood,
and these three parts are interdependent. The heartwood must rely on
the bark and the sapwood. The sapwood relies on the bark and the
heartwood. they all exist interdependently, just like the teachings
of Moral Discipline, Concentration and Wisdom. 
Moral Discipline is to establish your speech and actions in
rectitude. Concentration is to firmly fix the mind. Wisdom is the
thorough understanding of the nature of all conditions. Study this,
practice this, and you will understand Buddhism in the most profound
If you don't realize
these things you will be fooled by possessions, fooled by rank,
fooled by anything you come into contact with. simply supporting
Buddhism in the external way will never put an end to the fighting
and squabbling, the grudges and animosity, the stabbing and
shooting. If these things are to cease we must reflect on the nature
of possessions, rank, praise, happiness and suffering. We must
consider our lives and bring them in line with the Teaching. We
should reflect that all beings in the world are part of one whole.
We are like them, they are like us. They have happiness and
suffering just like we do. It's all much the same. If we reflect in
this way, peace and understanding will arise. This is the foundation
14. One who lives
devoted to religious practices. The term is used also to refer to
one who has developed a certain amount of virtue from such
practices. Ajahn Chah usually translates the term as "one who is
"knowledge and insight (into the Four Noble Truths)."
16. One of the Four
Foundations of Mindfulness: Body, Feelings, Mind, and Dhamma.
17. Kamachanda: Sensual
desire, one of the Five Hindrances, the other four being ill will,
doubt, restlessness and worry, and doubt.
18. The Five Khandhas,
or "heaps": Form, feeling, perception, conception, and
19. Sila-Dhamma: The
Teaching and Discipline, another name for the teaching of Buddhism,
but on the personal level meaning "virtue and (knowledge of) truth."
20. Sila, samadhi, pa