janaka-kamma: 'regenerative karma'; s. karma.
jarā: 'old age, decay', is one of the 3 divine messengers (s. deva-dūta, q.v.).
For its conditioning by birth, s. paticcasamuppāda (11).
jāti: 'birth', comprises the entire embryonic process beginning with conception
and ending with parturition.
"The birth of beings belonging to this or that order of beings, their being born,
their conception (okkanti) and springing into existence, the manifestation of the
groups (corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations, consciousness; s.
khandha), the acquiring of their sensitive organs: this is called birth" (D. 22).
For its conditioning by the prenatal karma-process (kamma-bhava; s. bhava),
s. paticcasamuppāda (9, 10), patisandhi.
javana (fr. javati, to impel): 'impulsion', is the phase of full
cognition in the cognitive series, or perceptual process (citta-vīthi; s. viññāna-kicca)
occurring at its climax, if the respective object is large or distinct. It is at this
phase that karma is produced, i.e. wholesome or unwholesome volition concerning the
perception that was the object of the previous stages of the respective process of
consciousness. There are normally 7 impulsive moments. In mundane consciousness
(lokiya, q.v.), any of the 17 karmically wholesome classes of consciousness (Tab. I,
1-17) or of the 12 unwholesome ones (Tab. I, 22-23) may arise at the phase of impulsion.
For the Arahat, however, impulsion has no longer a karmic, i.e. rebirth-producing
character, but is a karmically independent function (kiriya, q.v.; Tab. I, 72-89).
There are further 8 supermundane classes of impulsion (Tab. I, 18-21, 66-69).
The 4 impulsive moments immediately before entering an absorption (jhāna, q.v.)
or one of the supermundane paths (magga; s. ariyapuggala) are: the
preparatory (parikamma), approach (upacāra), adaptation (anuloma), and
maturity-moment (gotrabhū, q.v.) In connection with entering the earth-kasina
absorption (s. kasina), they are explained as follows, in Vis.M IV: "After
the breaking off of the subconscious stream of being (bhavanga-sota, q.v.), there
arises the 'advertence at the mind-door' (manodvārāvajjana, s. viññānakicca),
taking as object the earthkasina (whilst thinking), 'Earth! Earth!' Thereupon, 4 or 5
impulsive moments flash forth, amongst which the last one (maturity-moment) belongs to the
fine-material sphere (rūpāvacara), whereas the rest belong to the sense-sphere (kāmāvacara;
s. avacara), though the last one is more powerful in thought conception,
discursive thinking, interest (rapture), joy and concentration (cf. jhāna) than
the states of consciousness belonging to the sense-sphere. They are called 'preparatory' (parikamma-samādhi),
as they are preparing for the attainment-concentration (appanā-samādhi); 'approaching'
(upacāra-samādhi), as they are close to the attainment-concentration and are
moving in its neighbourhood; 'adaptive' (anuloma), as they adapt themselves to the
preceding preparatory states and to the succeeding attainment concentration. The last one
of the four is called 'matured' (gotrabhū). In a similar way, the impulsive moments
before reaching the divine ear are described in Vis.M XIII, 1. - Cf. Karma - (App.).
jewels. The 3: ti-ratana (q.v.).
jhāna: 'absorption' (meditation) refers chiefly to the four meditative
absorptions of the fine-material sphere (rūpa-jjhāna or rūpāvacara-jjhāna;
s. avacara). They are achieved through the attainment of full (or attainment -, or
ecstatic) concentration (appanā, s. samādhi), during which there is a
complete, though temporary, suspension of fivefold sense-activity and of the 5 hindrances
(s. nīvarana). The state of consciousness, however, is one of full alertness and
lucidity. This high degree of concentration is generally developed by the practice of one
of the 40 subjects of tranquillity meditation (samatha-kammatthāna; s. bhāvanā).
Often also the 4 immaterial spheres (arūpāyatana) are called absorptions of the
immaterial sphere (arūpa-jjhāna or arūpāvacara-jjhāna). The stereotype
text, often met with in the Suttas, runs as follows:
(1) "Detached from sensual objects, o monks, detached from unwholesome
consciousness, attached with thought-conception (vitakka) and discursive thinking (vicāra),
born of detachment (vivekaja) and filled with rapture (pīti) and joy
(sukha) he enters the first absorption.
(2) "After the subsiding of thought-conception and discursive thinking, and by
gaining inner tranquillity and oneness of mind, he enters into a state free from
thought-conception and discursive thinking, the second absorption, which is born of
concentration (samādhi), and filled with rapture (pīti) and joy (sukha).
(3) "After the fading away of rapture he dwells in equanimity, mindful,
clearly conscious; and he experiences in his person that feeling of which the Noble Ones
say, 'Happy lives the man of equanimity and attentive mind'; thus he enters the 3rd
(4) "After having given up pleasure and pain, and through the disappearance of
previous joy and grief, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain, into the 4th
absorption, which is purified by equanimity (upekkhā) and mindfulness.
(5) "Through the total overcoming of the perceptions of matter, however, and
through the vanishing of sense-reactions and the non-attention to the perceptions of
variety, with the idea, 'Boundless is space', he reaches the sphere of boundless space (ākāsānañcāyatana)
and abides therein.
["By 'perceptions of matter' (rūpa-saññā) are meant the absorptions of
the fine-material sphere, as well as those objects themselves . . . " (Vis.M X, 1).
"By 'perceptions of sense-reactions' (patigha-saññā) are meant those
perceptions that have arisen due to the impact of sense-organs (eye, etc.) and the
sense-objects (visible objects, etc.). They are a name for the perception of visible
objects, as it is said (Jhāna-Vibh . ): 'What are here the perceptions of
sense-reactions? They are the perceptions of visible objects, sounds, etc.' - Surely, they
do no longer exist even for one who has entered the 1st absorption, etc., for at such a
time the five-sense consciousness is no longer functioning. Nevertheless, this is to be
understood as having been said in praise of this immaterial absorption, in order to incite
the striving for it" (Vis.M X, 16).
"Perceptions of variety (ñānatta-saññā) are the perceptions that arise
in various fields, or the various perceptions" (ib.). Hereby, according to Vis.M X,
20, are meant the multiform perceptions outside the absorptions.]
(6) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of boundless space, and with the
idea 'Boundless is consciousness', he reaches the sphere of boundless consciousness
(viññānañcāyatana) and abides therein.
(7) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of boundless consciousness, and
with the idea 'Nothing is there', he reaches the sphere of nothingness (ākiñcaññāyatana)
and abides therein.
(8) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of nothingness he reaches the
sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception (nevasaññā-n'asaññāyatana) and
"Thus the 1st absorption is free from 5 things (i.e. the hindrances, nīvarana,
q.v.), and 5 things are present (i.e. the factors of absorption; jhānanga).
Whenever the monk enters the 1st absorption, there have vanished sensuous desire,
ill-will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and scruples, doubts; and there are present:
thought-conception (vitakka), discursive thinking (vicāra) rapture (pīti),
joy (sukha), and concentration (samādhi). In the 2nd absorption there
are present: rapture, joy and concentration; in the 3rd: joy and concentration; in the
4th: equanimity (upekkhā) and concentration" (Vis.M IV).
The 4 absorptions of the immaterial sphere (s. above 5-8) still belong, properly
speaking, to the 4th absorption as they possess the same two constituents. The 4th
fine-material absorption is also the base or starting point (pādaka-jhāna, q.v.)
for the attaining of the higher spiritual powers (abhiññā, q.v.).
In the Abhidhamma, generally a fivefold instead of a fourfold division of the
fine-material absorptions is used: the 2nd absorption has still the constituent
'discursive thinking' (but without thought-conception), while the 3rd, 4th and 5th
correspond to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th, respectively, of the fourfold division (s. Tab. I, 9-
13) . This fivefold division is based on sutta texts like A . VIII, 63 .
For the 8 absorptions as objects for the development of insight (vipassanā),
see samatha-vipassanā. - Full details in Vis.M IV-X.
Jhāna in its widest sense (e.g. as one of the 24 conditions; s. paccaya 17), denotes
any, even momentary or weak absorption of mind, when directed on a single object.
jhānanga: 'constituents (or factors) of absorption'; s. prec.
jhāna-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
jīva: life, vital principle, individual soul. 'Soul (life) and body are
identical' and 'Soul and body are different', these two frequently quoted wrong views fall
under the 2 kinds of personality-belief (sakkāya-ditthi; s. ditthi), i.e.
the first one under the annihilation-belief (uccheda-ditthi) and the second under
the eternity-belief (sassata-ditthi).
"Verily, if one holds the view that the soul (life) is identical with the
body, in that case a holy life is not possible; or if one holds the view that the soul
(life) is something quite different, also in that case a holy life is impossible. Both
these extremes the Perfect One has avoided and shown the Middle Doctrine, which says: 'On
ignorance depend the karma-formations, on the karma-formations depends consciousness',
etc." (S. XII. 35).
jīvita and jīvitindriya: 'Life, vitality', may be either physical
(rūpa-jīvitindriya) or mental (nāma-jīvitindriya). The latter is one of the
mental factors inseparably associated with all consciousness; cf. nāma, cetanā,
jīvita-navaka-kalāpa: ninefold vital group; s. rūpa-kalāpa.
joy: somanassa (q.v.). - Altruistic j. = muditā (s. brahma-vihāra).