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obduracies, the 5 mental: ceto-khila (q.v.).

obhāsa: 'effulgence of light', aura, appearing at times during deep insight (vipassanā), may become a 'defilement of insight' (vipassanūpakkilesa); cf. visuddhi, V.

object: ārammana (q.v.); as condition s. paccaya (2).

obstacles, the 10 o. of meditation: palibodha (q.v.); for the 5 mental obstacles, or hindrances, s. nīvarana.

odāta-kasina: 'white-kasina-exercise'; s. kasina.

ogha: 'floods', is a name for the 4 cankers (āsava, q.v.).

ojā: 'nutriment' (synonym of āhāra, q.v.), is one of those 8 minimal constituent parts, or qualities, of all corporeality, to wit: the solid, liquid, heat, motion; colour, odour, taste and nutriment. This is the 'octad with nutriment as the eighth (factor)' (ojatthamaka-kalāpa), also called the 'pure eightfold unit' (suddhatthaka-kalāpa), being the most primitive material combination. For further details, s. rūpa-kalāpa.

okkanti: 'conception', lit. 'descent', designates the appearance of the embryo in the mother's womb, i.e. the beginning of the birth process (jāti, q.v.). "Through the concurrence of 3 circumstances arises the embryo. When father and mother have united, ... and the mother has her time, and the 'genius' (metaphorically for the karma energy) is ready; under these 3 circumstances does the embryo appear" (M. 38).

old age: jarā (q.v.), is one of the 3 divine messengers (s. devadūta).

olfactory organ: s. āyatana.

omāna: 'inferiority-conceit'; s. māna.

once-eater, the practice of the: s. dhutanga.

one-group existence: eka-vokāra-bhava (q.v.).

one-pointedness of mind (citt'ekaggatā): a name for mental concentration (samādhi, q.v.).

opapātika: lit. 'accidental' (from upapāta, accident; not from upapatti, as PTS Dict. has); 'spontaneously born', i.e. born without the instrumentality of parents. This applies to all heavenly and infernal beings. "After the disappearing of the 5 lower fetters (samyojana, q.v.), he (the Anāgāmi) appears in a spiritual world (opapātika) ...."

open air, practice of living in the: s. dhutanga.

opposite: 'overcoming by the opposite,' s. pahāna.

orambhāgiya-samyojana: the 'lower fetters', i.e. the first 5 fetters that bind to lower existence; s. samyojana.

origination, dependent: paticcasamuppāda (q.v.).

origination of corporeality: s. samutthāna.

ottappa: 'moral dread'; s. hiri-ottappa.

overcoming, the 5 kinds of: s. pahāna. - Full understanding consisting in o.; s. pari˝˝ā - the effort to overcome, s. padhāna. - Overcoming doubt, the purification by; s. visuddhi, IV.

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