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卡拉玛经
 

Kalama Sutta
To the Kalamas

 

作者] 坦尼沙罗尊者

[中译]良稹

 

by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu

 

 

AN III.65

Kalama Sutta
To the Kalamas


Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
For free distribution only.

增支部 III.65
卡拉玛经


坦尼沙罗尊者英译,良稹中译
 

原文版权所有 1994 坦尼沙罗比丘 。免费发行。本文允许在任何媒体再版、重排、重印、印发。然而,作者希望任何再版与分发以对公众免费与无限制的形式进行,译文与转载也要求表明作者原衷。


中译版权所有 2005 良稹,http://www.theravadacn.org , 流通条件如上。转载时请包括本站连接,并登载本版权声明。

尊者与学者谈人们对卡拉玛经的误解

 

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One, on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large community of monks, arrived at Kesaputta, a town of the Kalamas. The Kalamas of Kesaputta heard it said, "Gotama the contemplative -- the son of the Sakyans, having gone forth from the Sakyan clan -- has arrived at Kesaputta. And of that Master Gotama this fine reputation has spread: 'He is indeed a Blessed One, worthy, & rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those persons ready to be tamed, teacher of human & divine beings, awakened, blessed. He has made known -- having realized it through direct knowledge -- this world with its devas, maras, & brahmas, its generations with their contemplatives & priests, their rulers & common people; has explained the Dhamma admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end; has expounded the holy life both in its particulars & in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure. It is good to see such a worthy one.'"

        如是我闻,一时薄伽梵与众比丘在拘萨罗国游方,来到卡拉玛人居住的克萨普达城。克萨普达的卡拉玛人听闻:沙门乔达摩从释迦族出家的释迦之子已来到克萨普达。关于那位乔达摩大师,流传著这样的好名声:他确是一位阿罗汉、正自觉者、明行足、善逝者、世间解、无上调御者、人天之师、佛陀、薄伽梵。他亲证了法,之后在这个有天神、魔罗、梵天、沙门僧侣与王者平民的世界上宣讲; 他解说的法义,始善、中 善、 后善; 他讲述的梵行,在细节与要义上,圆满具足、清净非凡。见这样一位阿罗汉是件善事。

So the Kalamas of Kesaputta went to the Blessed One. On arrival, some of them bowed down to him and sat to one side. Some of them exchanged courteous greetings with him and, after an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, sat to one side. Some of them sat to one side having saluted him with their hands palm-to-palm over their hearts. Some of them sat to one side having announced their name & clan. Some of them sat to one side in silence.

        于是卡拉玛人去见薄伽梵。到达时,有的向他顶礼,在一旁坐下。有的与他相互问候,在友好的问候与礼节后,在一旁坐下。有的合掌于胸前朝他致意,在一旁坐下。有的自报姓名,在一旁坐下。有的不出声,在一旁坐下。

As they sat there, the Kalamas of Kesaputta said to the Blessed One, "Lord, there are some priests & contemplatives who come to Kesaputta. They expound & glorify their own doctrines, but as for the doctrines of others, they deprecate them, revile them, show contempt for them, & disparage them. And then other priests & contemplatives come to Kesaputta. They expound & glorify their own doctrines, but as for the doctrines of others, they deprecate them, revile them, show contempt for them, & disparage them. They leave us absolutely uncertain & in doubt: Which of these venerable priests & contemplatives are speaking the truth, and which ones are lying?"

        他们在一旁坐著时,克萨普达的卡拉码人对薄伽梵说: 世尊,有一些僧侣行者来到克萨普达。他们阐述、颂扬自己的教义,但是对于他人的教义,则贬低、辱骂、鄙视、毁谤。接著,又有其他僧侣行者来到克萨普达。他们阐述、颂扬自己的教义,但是对于他人的教义,则贬低、辱骂、鄙视、毁谤。他们根本让我们疑惑不定: 这些尊敬的僧侣行者们,哪些讲真话,那些在欺骗?

"Of course you are uncertain, Kalamas. Of course you are in doubt. When there are reasons for doubt, uncertainty is born. So in this case, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering' -- then you should abandon them.

        卡拉玛人,你们当然不确定。你们当然有疑惑。当有某些原因使你们疑惑、不确定,就象这个情形时,卡拉玛人,不要只听从报道、传闻、传统、经典、猜测、推论、类比、同感、可能性、或者这位行者是我们的老师的想法。当你亲自了解了,这些素质是缺乏技巧的;这些素质是该受责备的;这些素质受智者的批评;这些素质采纳施行起来,趋向伤害与苦痛那时你应当弃绝它们。 

"What do you think, Kalamas? When greed arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this greedy person, overcome by greed, his mind possessed by greed, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

        卡拉玛人,你们认为如何,当一个人升起贪欲时,是有益还是有害 ?

        世尊,是有害。

        这个贪人,为贪意左右,心受贪意控制: 他杀生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、说谎并诱使他人效仿,这一切皆有长远的伤害与苦痛。

        正是,世尊。

"Now, what do you think, Kalamas? When aversion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this aversive person, overcome by aversion, his mind possessed by aversion, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

        卡拉玛人,你们认为如何,当一个人升析起嗔怒时,是有益还是有害?

        世尊,是有害。

        这个嗔人,为嗔意左右,心受嗔意控制: 他杀生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、说谎并诱使他人效仿,这一切皆有长远的伤害与苦痛。

        正是,世尊。

"Now, what do you think, Kalamas? When delusion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this deluded person, overcome by delusion, his mind possessed by delusion, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

        卡拉玛人,你们认为如何,当一个人升起痴迷时,是有益还是有害 ?

        世尊,是有害。

        这个痴人,为痴意左右,心受痴意控制: 他杀生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、说谎并诱使他人效仿,这一切皆有长远的伤害与苦痛。

        正是,世尊。

"So what do you think, Kalamas: Are these qualities skillful or unskillful?"

"Unskillful, lord."

"Blameworthy or blameless?"

"Blameworthy, lord."

"Criticized by the wise or praised by the wise?"

"Criticized by the wise, lord."

"When adopted & carried out, do they lead to harm & to suffering, or not?"

"When adopted & carried out, they lead to harm & to suffering. That is how it appears to us."

        那么,卡拉玛人:这些素质是善巧还是缺乏善巧?

        世尊,它们缺乏善巧。

        是该受责备,还是无可责备?

        世尊,它们该受责备。

        是受智者批评还是赞扬?

        世尊,它们受智者的批评。

        采纳起来,是否趋向伤害与苦痛?

        世尊,它们采纳起来,趋向伤害与苦痛。

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering" -- then you should abandon them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

        因此,卡拉玛人,我说过,不要只听从报道,传闻、传统、经典、猜测、推论、类比、同感、可能性、或者这位行者是我们的老师的想法。当你亲自了解了,这些素质是缺乏技巧的;这些素质是该受责备的;这些素质受智者的批评;这些素质采纳施行起来,趋向伤害与苦痛那时你应当弃绝它们。是这样说的,是指这方面而说。 

"Now, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness' -- then you should enter & remain in them.

        再者,卡拉玛人,不要只听从报道、传闻、传统、经典、猜测、推论、类比、同感、可能性、或者这位行者是我们的老师的想法。当你亲自了解了,这些素质是善巧的;这些素质是无可责备的;这些素质受智者的赞扬;这些素质采纳奉行时,趋向安宁与幸福那时你应当进入、安住其中。

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of greed arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this ungreedy person, not overcome by greed, his mind not possessed by greed, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

        卡拉玛人,你们认为如何,当一个人升起离贪之意时,是有益还是有害 ?

        世尊,是有益。

        这个离贪之人,不为贪意左右,心不受贪意控制: 他戒杀生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、说谎并诱使他人效仿,这一切皆有长远的安宁与幸福。

        正是,世尊。

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of aversion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this unaversive person, not overcome by aversion, his mind not possessed by aversion, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

        卡拉玛人,你们认为如何,当一个人升起离嗔之意时,是有益还是有害 ?

        世尊,是有益。

        这个离嗔之人,不为嗔意左右,心不受嗔意控制: 他戒杀生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、说谎并诱使他人效仿,这一切皆有长远的安宁与幸福。

        正是,世尊。

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of delusion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this undeluded person, not overcome by delusion, his mind not possessed by delusion, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

        卡拉玛人,你们认为如何,当一个人升起离痴之意时,是有益还是有害 ?

        世尊,是有益 。

        那么,这个离痴之人,不为痴意左右,心不受痴意控制: 他戒杀生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、说谎并诱使他人效仿,这一切皆有长远的安宁与幸福。

        正是,世尊。

"So what do you think, Kalamas: Are these qualities skillful or unskillful?"

"Skillful, lord."

"Blameworthy or blameless?"

"Blameless, lord."

"Criticized by the wise or praised by the wise?"

"Praised by the wise, lord."

"When adopted & carried out, do they lead to welfare & to happiness, or not?"

"When adopted & carried out, they lead to welfare & to happiness. That is how it appears to us."

 

        那么,卡拉玛人:这些素质是善巧还是缺乏善巧?

        世尊,它们是善巧的

        是该受责备,还是无可责备?

        世尊,它们无可责备。

        是受智者批评还是赞扬?

        世尊,它们受智者赞扬。

        采纳起来,是否趋向安宁与幸福?

        世尊,它们采纳起来,趋向安宁与幸福。

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness" -- then you should enter & remain in them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

 

        因此,卡拉玛人,我说过,不要只听从报道,传闻、传统、经典、猜测、推论、类比、同感、可能性、或者这位行者是我们的老师的想法。当你亲自了解了,这些素质是善巧的;这些素质是无可责备的;这些素质受智者的赞扬;这些素质采纳奉行起来,趋向安宁与幸福那时你应当进入、安住其中。 是这样说的,是指这方面而说。

"Now, Kalamas, one who is a disciple of the noble ones -- thus devoid of greed, devoid of ill will, undeluded, alert, & resolute -- keeps pervading the first direction [the east] -- as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth -- with an awareness imbued with good will. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with good will: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction -- as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth -- with an awareness imbued with compassion. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with compassion: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction -- as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth -- with an awareness imbued with appreciation. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with appreciation: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction -- as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth -- with an awareness imbued with equanimity. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with equanimity: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

        卡拉玛人,一位圣者的弟子如此离贪、离嗔、离痴、警觉、坚定以满怀善意(慈)的觉知,连续朝第一个方向[东方]、又朝第二、第三、第四个方向传送。 如此,他以满怀善意的觉知,连续朝上、朝下、周遭,朝包容万物的宇宙各处、各方传送: 充沛、宽广、无量、无敌意、无恶意。

        他以满怀同情(悲)的觉知,连续朝第一个方向、又朝第二、第三、第四个方向传送。 如此,他以满怀同情的觉知,连续朝上、朝下、周遭,朝包容万物的宇宙各处、各方传送: 充沛、宽广、无量、无敌意、无恶意。

        他以满怀随喜(喜)的觉知,连续朝第一个方向、又朝第二、第三、第四个方向传送。 如此,他以满怀随喜的觉知,连续朝上、朝下、周遭,朝包容万物的宇宙各处、各方传送: 充沛、宽广、无量、无敌意、无恶意。

        他以满怀平等(舍)的觉知,连续朝第一个方向、又朝第二、第三、第四个方向传送。 如此,他以满怀平等的觉知,继续朝上、朝下、周遭,朝包容万物的宇宙各处、各方传送: 丰富、宽广、无量、无敌意、无恶意。

"Now, Kalamas, one who is a disciple of the noble ones -- his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure -- acquires four assurances in the here-&-now:

"'If there is a world after death, if there is the fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then this is the basis by which, with the break-up of the body, after death, I will reappear in a good destination, the heavenly world.' This is the first assurance he acquires.

"'But if there is no world after death, if there is no fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then here in the present life I look after myself with ease -- free from hostility, free from ill will, free from trouble.' This is the second assurance he acquires.

"'If evil is done through acting, still I have willed no evil for anyone. Having done no evil action, from where will suffering touch me?' This is the third assurance he acquires.

"'But if no evil is done through acting, then I can assume myself pure in both respects.' This is the fourth assurance he acquires.

"One who is a disciple of the noble ones -- his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure -- acquires these four assurances in the here-&-now."

        卡拉玛人,一位圣者的弟子如此心无敌意、心无恶意、清净无染即时即地便得四个保障。

        如果死后另有世界,如果善行恶行有果报,以此为据,死后随色身分解,我将重生于善处、天界。这是他所得的第一个保障。

        但是,如果死后非另有世界,如果善行恶行无果报,那么此生此地,我远离敌意、远离恶意、远离困顿,自在地照顾自己。这是他所得的第二个保障。

        如果行为造作恶业,我却不曾对任何人起过恶意。既不造恶业,苦又从何触及我?这是他所得的第三个保障。

        但是,如果行为不造恶业,那么我可以认为自己在这两方面是清净的。 这是他所得的第四个保障。

        一位圣者的弟子如此心无敌意、心无恶意、清净无染即时即地便得这四个保障。

"So it is, Blessed One. So it is, O One Well-gone. One who is a disciple of the noble ones -- his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure -- acquires four assurances in the here-&-now:

"'If there is a world after death, if there is the fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then this is the basis by which, with the break-up of the body, after death, I will reappear in a good destination, the heavenly world.' This is the first assurance he acquires.

"'But if there is no world after death, if there is no fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then here in the present life I look after myself with ease -- free from hostility, free from ill will, free from trouble.' This is the second assurance he acquires.

"'If evil is done through acting, still I have willed no evil for anyone. Having done no evil action, from where will suffering touch me?' This is the third assurance he acquires.

"'But if no evil is done through acting, then I can assume myself pure in both ways.' This is the fourth assurance he acquires.

"One who is a disciple of the noble ones -- his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure -- acquires these four assurances in the here-&-now.

        是这样,世尊。是这样啊,善逝者。一位圣者的弟子如此心无敌意、心无恶意、清净无染即时即地便得四个保障。

        如果死后另有世界,如果善行恶行有果报,以此为据,死后随色身分解,我会重生于善处、天界。这是他所得的第一个保障。

        但是,如果死后非另有世界,如果善行恶行无果报,那么此生此地,我远离敌意、远离恶意、远离困顿,自在地照顾自己。这是他所得的第二个保障。

        如果行为造作恶业,我却不曾对任何人起过恶意。既不造恶业,苦又从何触及我?这是他所得的第三个保障。

        但是,如果行为不造恶业,那么我可以认为自己在这两方面是清净的。 这是他所得的第四个保障。

        一位圣者的弟子如此心无敌意、心无恶意、清净无染即时即地便得这四个保障。

"Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One -- through many lines of reasoning -- made the Dhamma clear. We go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of monks. May the Blessed One remember us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."

        胜哉!世尊,胜哉!世尊正好比将颠倒之物置正、把隐秘之事揭开、为迷途者指路、在黑夜里举灯、使有目者见形,同样地,世尊藉多方推理,阐明了法。我们归依世尊、归依法、归依僧。愿世尊记得我们这些从今天起一生归依于他的居家弟子们。


 

尊者与学者谈人们对卡拉玛经的误解:

 

坦尼沙罗尊者(摘自本经英译者注):
        尽管这部经文常被引用,作为佛陀许可人们跟着自己对错感走的空白通行证,文中所讲实际要严格得多。对于傳统,不能只因为是傳统就奉行。对于报道,不能只因为来源似乎可靠(例如历史记载或者新闻)就听信。对于个人偏好,不能只因为它看上去符合逻辑或反映个人感情,就遵循。反之,任何见解与信仰,必须受实证检验; 而且为了防止那些检验结果带着个人偏见与理解限制必须进一步对照智者的经验。

 


菩提尊者:(摘自讲经录音以及《读卡拉玛经》一文)
        在卡拉玛经中,佛陀为我们提供了几个判断某个灵性教导是有益还是有害的标准。运用这些判断标准,我们采纳或放弃某种灵性教导,使我们的生活对己对人有益。不过,卡拉玛经在佛教圈子里,在佛教宣传家当中十分流行,经常给理解成,你可以同时既是一位佛教徒,又想信什么就信什么,因为这部经告诉你,不应依靠任何外在权威。如果是那样的话,为什么你依靠佛陀呢,依靠你自己行了。

        根据单独一个段落,断章取义地引用,佛陀被人们描绘成一个务实的经验主义者,他排斥一切信仰,他的法不过是一个自由思考者的工具箱,让每个人用来随心所欲地接受、排斥任何事物。
        [卡拉玛经中]佛陀首先肯定卡拉玛人有疑问是合理的,这个肯定是在鼓励自由探索; 接著,他建议卡拉玛人放弃自己确知为不良的教导,接受自己确知为善巧的教导。这个建议,如果给道德感低下者,是很危险的。我们因此可以假设,佛陀把卡拉玛人看成具有良好道德感的群体。不过,他还是没有让他们自己单独去摸索,而是藉著提问,使他们理解,趋向伤害与痛苦的贪、瞋、痴,应当放弃,对众生的善意,应当培养。

        那么,卡拉玛经是不是象许多人认为的那样,表明佛陀弟子可以不需要任何信仰与教义,他应该以个人经验为标准,来判断佛陀教导,如果不一致就可以排斥呢? 佛陀的确没有要求卡拉玛人相信他而接受他的教导,但是让我们注意到重要一点: 在经文开始时,卡拉玛人并不是佛陀的弟子。他们只是把他当成一个咨询专家,希望能帮助自己解答某个疑问,而没有把他当成如来,要求他指出灵性进步与解脱之路。

        应当公正地指出,佛陀教导当中,那些属于我们常规经验范畴内的,是可以亲身证实的,而这样的证实提供了一个坚实基础,去信赖那些必然超越常规经验的教导。佛陀的教导中,信仰本身从来不是目的,也不足以保证解脱,而是作为起点,开始一个内在转化过程,最终达到亲身的洞见。但是为了这个洞见真正有解脱之力,它必须在我们对自己在世处境与解脱的寻求之地,有著准确理解这个背景下进行。佛陀对人类的处境已获得深刻的理解并把这些真理传授给了我们。藉著仔细思索之后接受它们,就等于走上了一条道路,最终将化信仰为智慧、 化信心为确定,从苦中解脱。


 


理查德-贡布里奇:(牛津大学巴利学与梵文学教授,摘自《上座部佛教》一书)
        有一段经文在现代西方极其流行,因为它似乎带有个人主义讯息,这便是《卡拉玛经》。在这部经中佛陀教导说,每个人应当自己判断宗教教义; 对一种教说不应轻信,而必须亲身验证。这确是一段极其重要的谈话。不过细读之下可见,佛陀至少是极具自信,人们听从这段忠告,将会接受他的教导。他的忠告是一位背离常规权威的创新者之言,但这并不意味著他本人对真理的了解有任何缺陷或仅在主观上有效。用史蒂芬-科林斯的说法,佛陀之意非是创造你自己的真理(Make your own truth),而是使真理成为你自己的(Make the Truth your own)。

 

Source : http://www.dhammatalks.org

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