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cāga: 'liberality', is one of the 'blessings' (s. sampadā), 'foundations' (s. adhitthāna), 'recollections' (s. anussati), 'treasures' (s. dhana).

cakka: 'wheel', is one of the seven 'precious possessions' (ratana) of a righteous World Emperor (cakkavatti: 'He who owns the Wheel,' cf. D. 26), and symbolizes conquering progress and expanding sovereignty. From that derives the figurative expression dhamma-cakkam pavatteti, 'he sets rolling the Wheel of the Law' and the name of the Buddha's first sermon, Dhamma-cakkappavattana Sutta (s. dhamma-cakka).

Another figurative meaning of C. is 'blessing'. There are 4 such 'auspicious wheels' or 'blessings': living in a suitable locality, company of good people, meritorious acts done in the past, right inclinations (A. IV, 31).

Bhava-cakka, 'wheel of existence', or of life, is a name for 'dependent origination' (s. paticca-samuppāda).

See The Buddhist Wheel Symbol, by T. B. Karunaratne (WHEEL 137/138); The Wheel of Birth and Death, by Bhikkhu Khantipalo (WHEEL 147/149)

cakkh' āyatana: 'the base "visual organ" ' (s. āyatana).

cakkhu: 'eye' s. āyatana. - The foll. 5 kinds of 'eyes' are mentioned and explained in CNid. (PTS, p. 235; the first 3 also in It. 52): 1. the physical eye (mamsa cakkhu), 2. the divine eye (dibba-cakkhu; s. abhi˝˝ā), 3. the eye of wisdom (pa˝˝ā-cakkhu), 4 the eye of a Buddha (Buddha-c.), 5. the eye of all-round knowledge (samanta-c.; a frequent appellation of the Buddha).

cakkhu-dhātu: 'the element "visual organ" '(s. dhātu).

cakkhu-vi˝˝āna: 'eye-consciousness' (s. vi˝˝āna).

cankers: s. āsava.

carana: s. vijjā-carana.

carita: 'nature, character'. In Vis.M III there are explained six types of men: the greedy-natured (rāga-carita), the hate-natured (dosa-carita), the stupid or dull-natured (moha-carita), the faithful-natured (saddhā-carita), the intelligent-natured (buddhi-carita), the ruminating-natured (vitakka-carita). - (App.).

cāritta- and vāritta-sīla: 'morality consisting in performance and morality consisting in avoidance,' means "the performance of those moral rules which the Blessed one has ordained to be followed, and the avoidance of those things that the Blessed One has rejected as not to be followed" (Vis.M III). - (App.).

catu-dhātu-vavatthāna: 'analysis of the four elements'; s. dhātu-vavatthāna.

catu-mahārājika-deva a class of heavenly beings of the sensuous sphere; s. deva.

catu-pārisuddhi-sīla: s. sīla.

catu-vokāra-bhava: 'four-group existence', is the existence in the immaterial world (arūpa-loka; s. loka), since only the four mental groups (feeling, perception, mental formations, consciousness, s. khandha) are found there, the corporeality group being absent. Cf. pa˝ca-vokāra-bhava, eka-vokāra-bhava. (App.: vokāra).

cause: cf. paccaya (1). - For the five c. of existence, s. paticca-samuppāda (10).

cemetery: ascetic practice of living in a c.; s. dhutanga.

cemetery-meditations: s. sīvathikā.

cetanā: 'volition', will, is one of the seven mental factors (cetasika, q.v.) inseparably bound up with all consciousness, namely sensorial or mental impression (phassa), feeling (vedanā), perception (sa˝˝ā), volition (cetanā), concentration (samādhi), vitality (jīvita), advertence (manasikāra). Cf. Tab. II, III.

With regard to karmical volition (i.e. wholesome or unwholesome karma) it is said in A. VI, 13: "Volition is action (karma), thus I say, o monks; for as soon as volition arises, one does the action, be it by body, speech or mind." For details, s. paticca-samuppāda (10), karma.

cetasika: 'mental things, mental factors', are those mental concomitants which are bound up with the simultaneously arising consciousness (citta = vi˝˝āna) and conditioned by its presence . Whereas in the Suttas all phenomena of existence are summed up under the aspect of 5 groups: corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations, consciousness (s. khandha), the Abhidhamma as a rule treats them under the more philosophical 3 aspects: consciousness, mental factors and corporeality (citta, cetasika, rūpa). Thus, of these 3 aspects, the mental factors (cetasika) comprise feeling, perception and the 50 mental formations, altogether 52 mental concomitants. Of these, 25 are lofty qualities (either karmically wholesome or neutral), 14 karmically unwholesome, while 13 are as such karmically neutral, their karmical quality depending on whether they are associated with wholesome, unwholesome or neutral consciousness. For details s. Tab. II, III. Cf. prec. (App . )

cetaso vinibandha: 'mental bondages', are 5 things which hinder the mind from making right exertion, namely: lust for sensuous objects, for the body, for visible things, for eating and sleeping, and leading the monk's life for the sake of heavenly rebirth. For details, s. A.V, 205; X, 14; D. 33; M. 16. Cf. foll.

cetokhila: 'mental obduracies', are 5 things which stiffen and hinder the mind from making right exertion, namely: doubt about the Master, about the Doctrine, about the (holy) Brotherhood, about the training, and anger against one's fellow-monks. For details s. A.V, 206, X 14; D. 33; M. 16. Cf. prec.

ceto-pariya-˝āna: 'penetrating knowledge of the mind (of others)', is one of the 6 higher powers (abhi˝˝ā 3, q.v.).

ceto-vimutti: 'deliverance of mind'. In the highest sense it signifies the fruition of Arahatship (s. ariya-puggala), and in particular, the concentration associated with it. It is often linked with the 'deliverance through wisdom' (pa˝˝ā-vimutti, q.v.), e.g. in the ten powers of a Perfect One (s. dasa-bala). See vimokkha I.

It is also called 'unshakable deliverance of mind' (akuppa-c.); further 'boundless of of m'. (appamāna-c.); 'd. of m. from the conditions of existence, or signless of of m.' (animittā-c.); 'd. of m. from the appendages' (ākinca˝˝a-c.), since that state of mind is free from the 3 bonds, conditions and appendants, i.e. from greed, hatred and ignorance; and since it is void thereof, it is called the 'void deliverance of mind' (su˝˝atā-c.)

In a more restricted sense, 'boundless deliverance of mind' is a name for the 4 boundless states, i.e. loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic joy and equanimity (s. brahma-vihāra); 'd. of m. from the appendages' stands for the 'sphere of nothingness' (āki˝ca˝˝āyatana s. jhāna 7); 'd. of mind from the conditions of existence', for of of mind due to non-attention to all conditions of existence; 'void of of m' for of of m. due to contemplating voidness of self. For further details, s. M. 43.

chal-abhi˝˝ā: the 6 'higher powers'; s. abhi˝˝ā.

chal-abhi˝˝o: an Arahat who is a 'possessor of the 6 higher powers' (s. abhi˝˝ā).

chanda: intention, desire, will.

1. As an ethically neutral psychological term, in the sense of 'intention', it is one of those general mental factors (cetasika, q.v. Tab. II) taught in the Abhidhamma, the moral quality of which is determined by the character of the volition (cetanā, q.v.) associated therewith. The Com. explains it as 'a wish to do' (kattu-kamyatā-chanda). If intensified, it acts also as a 'predominance condition' (s. paccaya 3).

2. As an evil quality it has the meaning of 'desire', and is frequently coupled with terms for 'sensuality', 'greed', etc., for instance: kāma-cchanda, 'sensuous desire', one of the 5 hindrances (s. nīvarana); chanda-rāga, 'lustful desire' (s. kāma). It is one of the 4 wrong paths (s. agati).

3. As a good quality it is a righteous will or zeal (dhamma-chanda) and occurs, e.g. in the formula of the 4 right efforts (s. padhāna): "The monk rouses his will (chandam janeti)...." If intensified, it is one of the 4 roads to power (s. iddhipāda).

change, contemplation of: one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (vipassanā, q.v.) .

chaos: cf. kappa.

character: On the 6 kinds of human character, s. carita.

characteristics of existence, the. 3: ti-lakkhana (q.v.).

chaste life: brahma-cariya (q.v.).

chief-elements, the 4: mahā-bhūta (q.v.) - dhātu (q.v.).

cintā-maya-pa˝˝ā: 'Wisdom (or knowledge) based on thinking', s. pa˝˝ā.

citta: 'mind', 'consciousness', 'state of consciousness', is a synonym of mano (q.v.) and vi˝˝āna (s. khandha and Tab. 1). Dhs. divides all phenomena into consciousness (citta), mental concomitants (cetasika, q.v.) and corporeality (rūpa).

In adhicitta, 'higher mentality', it signifies the concentrated, quietened mind, and is one of the 3 trainings (s. sikkhā). The concentration (or intensification) of consciousness is one of the 4 roads to power (s. iddhipāda).

citta-ja (citta-samutthāna)-rūpa: 'mind-produced corporeality'; s. samutthāna.

citta-kamma˝˝atā, ░lahutā, ░mudutā, ░pagu˝˝atā, ░passaddhi, ░ujukatā; s. Tab. II.

citta-kkhana: 'consciousness-moment', is the time occupied by one single stage in the perceptual process or cognitive series (cittavīthi; s. vi˝˝āna-kicca). This moment again is subdivided into the genetic (uppāda), static (thiti) and dissolving (bhanga) moment. One such moment is said in the commentaries to be of inconceivably short duration and to last not longer than the billionth part of the time occupied by a flash of lightning. However that may be, we ourselves know from experience that it is possible within one single second to dream of innumerable things and events. In A. I, 10 it is said: "Nothing, o monks, do I know that changes so rapidly as consciousness. Scarcely anything may be found that could be compared with this so rapidly changing consciousness." (App. khana).

cittānupassanā: 'contemplation of consciousness', is one of the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthāna, q.v.)

citta-samutthāna-rūpa: 'mind-produced corporeality'; s. samutthāna.

citta-sankhāra: s. sankhāra.

citta-santāna: 'consciousness-continuity'; s. santāna.

cittass'ekaggatā: 'one-pointedness of mind', is a synonym of concentration, or samādhi (q.v.)

citta-vipallāsa: 'perversion of mind'; s. vipallāsa.

citta-visuddhi: 'purification of mind', is the 2nd of the 7 stages of purification (visuddhi, II,. q.v.).

citta-vīthi: 'process of consciousness'; s. vi˝˝āna-kicca.

citt'ekaggatā = cittass'ekaggatā (q.v.).

clarity of consciousness: sampaja˝˝a (q.v.).

clinging, the 4 kinds of: upādāna (q.v.).

cognitive series: s. vi˝˝āna-kicca.

companionship: Influence of good and bad░ = samseva (q.v.) .

compassion: karunā; s. brahma-vihāra.

comprehension: clear c.: s. sampaja˝˝a. - c. in insight, s. sammasana. - As an alternative tr. for full understanding, s. pari˝˝ā.

co-nascence: sahajāta-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) .

conceit: māna (q.v.); further s. samyojana.

concentration: samādhi (q.v.) - right░, s. sacca (IV. 8), magga (8). - wrong░, s. micchā-magga (8).

conception 1. thought-c░: cf. vitakka-vicāra.

conception 2. (in the mother's womb): okkanti (q.v.).

conditions, the 24: paccaya (q.v.).

conditions of existence, deliverance from the: see ceto-vimutti; vimokkha.

confidence: s. saddhā.

consciousness: vi˝˝āna (s. khandha), citta (q.v.), mano (q v ) - Moment of ░: citta-kkhana (q.v.). Contemplation of ░: cittānupassanā: s. satipatthāna - Corporeality produced by ░: citta-ja-rūpa, s. samutthāna - Abodes or supports of ░: cf. vi˝˝ānatthiti (q.v.) Functions of ░: vi˝˝āna-kicca (q.v.).

contemplation: s. anupassanā.

contentedness (with whatever robe, etc.) belongs to the noble usages: ariya-vamsa (q.v.).

contentment: appicchatā, is one of the ascetic virtues. Cf. A. X, 181-90.

contiguity: samanantara-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

continuity (of body, subconsciousness, consciousness or groups of existence): santāna (q.v.).

control, effort of: s. padhāna.

conventional (expression or truth): s. desanā.

corporeality: produced through consciousness, karma, etc.; s. samutthāna. - Sensitive c.: pasāda-rūpa. (q.v.).

corporeality and mind: s. nāma-rūpa.

corporeality-group: rūpa-kkhandha: s. khandha.

corporeality-perceptions: rūpa-sa˝˝ā: s. jhāna.

corruptions: s. upakkilesa.

cosmogony: cf. kappa.

counteractive karma: upapīlaka-kamma; s. karma.

counter-image (during concentration): s. nimitta, kasina, samādhi.

course of action (wholesome or unwholesome): kammapatha (q.v.).

covetousness: abhijjhā (q.v.); further s. kamma-patha (1).

cowardice: s. agati.

craving: tanhā (q.v.), rāga (q.v.); further s. mūla.

created, the: sankhata (q.v.).

cuti-citta: 'death-consciousness', lit. 'departing consciousness', is one of the 14 functions of consciousness (vi˝˝āna-kicca q.v.).

cutūpapāta-˝āna the 'knowledge of the vanishing and reappearing' (of beings) is identical with the divine eye; s. abhi˝˝ā.

cycle of existence: s. samsarā, vatta.

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