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cāga: 'liberality', is one of the 'blessings' (s. sampadā), 'foundations'
(s. adhitthāna), 'recollections' (s. anussati), 'treasures' (s. dhana).
cakka: 'wheel', is one of the seven 'precious possessions' (ratana) of
a righteous World Emperor (cakkavatti: 'He who owns the Wheel,' cf. D. 26), and
symbolizes conquering progress and expanding sovereignty. From that derives the figurative
expression dhamma-cakkam pavatteti, 'he sets rolling the Wheel of the Law' and the
name of the Buddha's first sermon, Dhamma-cakkappavattana Sutta (s. dhamma-cakka).
Another figurative meaning of C. is 'blessing'. There are 4 such 'auspicious
wheels' or 'blessings': living in a suitable locality, company of good people, meritorious
acts done in the past, right inclinations (A. IV, 31).
Bhava-cakka, 'wheel of existence', or of life, is a name for 'dependent
origination' (s. paticca-samuppāda).
See The Buddhist Wheel Symbol, by T. B. Karunaratne (WHEEL 137/138);
The Wheel of Birth and Death, by Bhikkhu Khantipalo (WHEEL 147/149)
cakkh' āyatana: 'the base "visual organ" ' (s. āyatana).
cakkhu: 'eye' s. āyatana. - The foll. 5 kinds of 'eyes' are
mentioned and explained in CNid. (PTS, p. 235; the first 3 also in It. 52): 1. the
physical eye (mamsa cakkhu), 2. the divine eye (dibba-cakkhu; s.
3. the eye of wisdom (pa˝˝ā-cakkhu), 4 the eye of a Buddha (Buddha-c.),
5. the eye of all-round knowledge (samanta-c.; a frequent appellation of
cakkhu-dhātu: 'the element "visual organ" '(s. dhātu).
cakkhu-vi˝˝āna: 'eye-consciousness' (s. vi˝˝āna).
cankers: s. āsava.
carana: s. vijjā-carana.
carita: 'nature, character'. In Vis.M III there are explained six types of
men: the greedy-natured (rāga-carita), the hate-natured (dosa-carita), the
stupid or dull-natured (moha-carita), the faithful-natured (saddhā-carita), the
intelligent-natured (buddhi-carita), the ruminating-natured (vitakka-carita).
cāritta- and vāritta-sīla: 'morality consisting in performance and
morality consisting in avoidance,' means "the performance of those moral rules which
the Blessed one has ordained to be followed, and the avoidance of those things that the
Blessed One has rejected as not to be followed" (Vis.M III). - (App.).
catu-dhātu-vavatthāna: 'analysis of the four elements'; s.
catu-mahārājika-deva a class of heavenly beings of the sensuous sphere; s.
catu-pārisuddhi-sīla: s. sīla.
catu-vokāra-bhava: 'four-group existence', is the existence in the
immaterial world (arūpa-loka; s. loka), since only the four mental groups
(feeling, perception, mental formations, consciousness, s. khandha) are found
there, the corporeality group being absent. Cf. pa˝ca-vokāra-bhava,
eka-vokāra-bhava. (App.: vokāra).
cause: cf. paccaya (1). - For the five c. of existence, s. paticca-samuppāda
cemetery: ascetic practice of living in a c.; s. dhutanga.
cemetery-meditations: s. sīvathikā.
cetanā: 'volition', will, is one of the seven mental factors (cetasika, q.v.)
inseparably bound up with all consciousness, namely sensorial or mental impression
(phassa), feeling (vedanā), perception (sa˝˝ā), volition (cetanā),
concentration (samādhi), vitality (jīvita), advertence
(manasikāra). Cf. Tab. II, III.
With regard to karmical volition (i.e. wholesome or unwholesome karma) it is said in A.
VI, 13: "Volition is action (karma), thus I say, o monks; for as soon as volition
arises, one does the action, be it by body, speech or mind." For details, s. paticca-samuppāda
cetasika: 'mental things, mental factors', are those mental concomitants which
are bound up with the simultaneously arising consciousness (citta = vi˝˝āna) and
conditioned by its presence . Whereas in the Suttas all phenomena of existence are summed
up under the aspect of 5 groups: corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations,
consciousness (s. khandha), the Abhidhamma as a rule treats them under the more
philosophical 3 aspects: consciousness, mental factors and corporeality (citta,
cetasika, rūpa). Thus, of these 3 aspects, the mental factors (cetasika) comprise
feeling, perception and the 50 mental formations, altogether 52 mental concomitants. Of
these, 25 are lofty qualities (either karmically wholesome or neutral), 14 karmically
unwholesome, while 13 are as such karmically neutral, their karmical quality depending on
whether they are associated with wholesome, unwholesome or neutral consciousness. For
details s. Tab. II, III. Cf. prec. (App . )
cetaso vinibandha: 'mental bondages', are 5 things which hinder the mind from
making right exertion, namely: lust for sensuous objects, for the body, for visible
things, for eating and sleeping, and leading the monk's life for the sake of heavenly
rebirth. For details, s. A.V, 205; X, 14; D. 33; M. 16. Cf. foll.
cetokhila: 'mental obduracies', are 5 things which stiffen and hinder the mind
from making right exertion, namely: doubt about the Master, about the Doctrine, about the
(holy) Brotherhood, about the training, and anger against one's fellow-monks. For details
s. A.V, 206, X 14; D. 33; M. 16. Cf. prec.
ceto-pariya-˝āna: 'penetrating knowledge of the mind (of others)', is one of
the 6 higher powers (abhi˝˝ā 3, q.v.).
ceto-vimutti: 'deliverance of mind'. In the highest sense it signifies the
fruition of Arahatship (s. ariya-puggala), and in particular, the concentration
associated with it. It is often linked with the 'deliverance through wisdom' (pa˝˝ā-vimutti,
q.v.), e.g. in the ten powers of a Perfect One (s. dasa-bala). See vimokkha
It is also called 'unshakable deliverance of mind' (akuppa-c.); further
'boundless of of m'. (appamāna-c.); 'd. of m. from the conditions of
existence, or signless of of m.' (animittā-c.); 'd. of m. from the
appendages' (ākinca˝˝a-c.), since that state of mind is free from the 3
bonds, conditions and appendants, i.e. from greed, hatred and ignorance; and since it is
void thereof, it is called the 'void deliverance of mind' (su˝˝atā-c.)
In a more restricted sense, 'boundless deliverance of mind' is a name for the 4
boundless states, i.e. loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic joy and equanimity (s. brahma-vihāra);
'd. of m. from the appendages' stands for the 'sphere of nothingness' (āki˝ca˝˝āyatana
s. jhāna 7); 'd. of mind from the conditions of existence', for of of mind due
to non-attention to all conditions of existence; 'void of of m' for of of m. due to
contemplating voidness of self. For further details, s. M. 43.
chal-abhi˝˝ā: the 6 'higher powers'; s. abhi˝˝ā.
chal-abhi˝˝o: an Arahat who is a 'possessor of the 6 higher powers' (s.
chanda: intention, desire, will.
1. As an ethically neutral psychological term, in the sense of 'intention', it is one
of those general mental factors (cetasika, q.v. Tab. II) taught in the Abhidhamma,
the moral quality of which is determined by the character of the volition (cetanā, q.v.)
associated therewith. The Com. explains it as 'a wish to do' (kattu-kamyatā-chanda).
If intensified, it acts also as a 'predominance condition' (s. paccaya 3).
2. As an evil quality it has the meaning of 'desire', and is frequently coupled with
terms for 'sensuality', 'greed', etc., for instance: kāma-cchanda, 'sensuous
desire', one of the 5 hindrances (s. nīvarana); chanda-rāga, 'lustful
desire' (s. kāma). It is one of the 4 wrong paths (s. agati).
3. As a good quality it is a righteous will or zeal (dhamma-chanda) and
occurs, e.g. in the formula of the 4 right efforts (s. padhāna): "The monk
rouses his will (chandam janeti)...." If intensified, it is one of the 4 roads
to power (s. iddhipāda).
change, contemplation of: one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (vipassanā, q.v.)
chaos: cf. kappa.
character: On the 6 kinds of human character, s. carita.
characteristics of existence, the. 3: ti-lakkhana (q.v.).
chaste life: brahma-cariya (q.v.).
chief-elements, the 4: mahā-bhūta (q.v.) - dhātu (q.v.).
cintā-maya-pa˝˝ā: 'Wisdom (or knowledge) based on thinking', s. pa˝˝ā.
citta: 'mind', 'consciousness', 'state of consciousness', is a synonym of mano
(q.v.) and vi˝˝āna (s. khandha and Tab. 1). Dhs. divides all phenomena
into consciousness (citta), mental concomitants (cetasika, q.v.) and
In adhicitta, 'higher mentality', it signifies the concentrated, quietened
mind, and is one of the 3 trainings (s. sikkhā). The concentration (or
intensification) of consciousness is one of the 4 roads to power (s. iddhipāda).
citta-ja (citta-samutthāna)-rūpa: 'mind-produced corporeality'; s. samutthāna.
citta-kamma˝˝atā, ░lahutā, ░mudutā, ░pagu˝˝atā, ░passaddhi,
░ujukatā; s. Tab. II.
citta-kkhana: 'consciousness-moment', is the time occupied by one single stage
in the perceptual process or cognitive series (cittavīthi; s. vi˝˝āna-kicca).
This moment again is subdivided into the genetic (uppāda), static (thiti) and
dissolving (bhanga) moment. One such moment is said in the commentaries to be of
inconceivably short duration and to last not longer than the billionth part of the time
occupied by a flash of lightning. However that may be, we ourselves know from experience
that it is possible within one single second to dream of innumerable things and events. In
A. I, 10 it is said: "Nothing, o monks, do I know that changes so rapidly as
consciousness. Scarcely anything may be found that could be compared with this so rapidly
changing consciousness." (App. khana).
cittānupassanā: 'contemplation of consciousness', is one of the 4
foundations of mindfulness (satipatthāna, q.v.)
citta-samutthāna-rūpa: 'mind-produced corporeality'; s. samutthāna.
citta-sankhāra: s. sankhāra.
citta-santāna: 'consciousness-continuity'; s. santāna.
cittass'ekaggatā: 'one-pointedness of mind', is a synonym of concentration, or samādhi
citta-vipallāsa: 'perversion of mind'; s. vipallāsa.
citta-visuddhi: 'purification of mind', is the 2nd of the 7 stages of
purification (visuddhi, II,. q.v.).
citta-vīthi: 'process of consciousness'; s. vi˝˝āna-kicca.
citt'ekaggatā = cittass'ekaggatā (q.v.).
clarity of consciousness: sampaja˝˝a (q.v.).
clinging, the 4 kinds of: upādāna (q.v.).
cognitive series: s. vi˝˝āna-kicca.
companionship: Influence of good and bad░ = samseva (q.v.) .
compassion: karunā; s. brahma-vihāra.
comprehension: clear c.: s. sampaja˝˝a. - c. in
insight, s. sammasana. - As an alternative tr. for full understanding, s.
co-nascence: sahajāta-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.)
conceit: māna (q.v.); further s. samyojana.
concentration: samādhi (q.v.) - right░, s. sacca (IV. 8), magga
(8). - wrong░, s. micchā-magga (8).
conception 1. thought-c░: cf. vitakka-vicāra.
conception 2. (in the mother's womb): okkanti (q.v.).
conditions, the 24: paccaya (q.v.).
conditions of existence, deliverance from the: see ceto-vimutti; vimokkha.
confidence: s. saddhā.
consciousness: vi˝˝āna (s. khandha), citta (q.v.), mano (q
v ) - Moment of ░: citta-kkhana (q.v.). Contemplation of ░: cittānupassanā:
s. satipatthāna - Corporeality produced by ░: citta-ja-rūpa, s. samutthāna
- Abodes or supports of ░: cf. vi˝˝ānatthiti (q.v.) Functions of ░: vi˝˝āna-kicca
contemplation: s. anupassanā.
contentedness (with whatever robe, etc.) belongs to the noble usages: ariya-vamsa
contentment: appicchatā, is one of the ascetic virtues. Cf. A. X,
contiguity: samanantara-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
continuity (of body, subconsciousness, consciousness or groups of existence): santāna
control, effort of: s. padhāna.
conventional (expression or truth): s. desanā.
corporeality: produced through consciousness, karma, etc.; s. samutthāna.
- Sensitive c.: pasāda-rūpa. (q.v.).
corporeality and mind: s. nāma-rūpa.
corporeality-group: rūpa-kkhandha: s. khandha.
corporeality-perceptions: rūpa-sa˝˝ā: s. jhāna.
corruptions: s. upakkilesa.
cosmogony: cf. kappa.
counteractive karma: upapīlaka-kamma; s. karma.
counter-image (during concentration): s. nimitta, kasina, samādhi.
course of action (wholesome or unwholesome): kammapatha (q.v.).
covetousness: abhijjhā (q.v.); further s. kamma-patha (1).
cowardice: s. agati.
craving: tanhā (q.v.), rāga (q.v.); further s. mūla.
created, the: sankhata (q.v.).
cuti-citta: 'death-consciousness', lit. 'departing consciousness', is one of the
14 functions of consciousness (vi˝˝āna-kicca q.v.).
cutūpapāta-˝āna the 'knowledge of the vanishing and reappearing' (of beings)
is identical with the divine eye; s. abhi˝˝ā.
cycle of existence: s. samsarā, vatta.
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05 November 2005