sabba-loke anabhirati-sa˝˝ā: 'contemplation on disinterestedness regarding the
whole world', described in A. X., 60 in the following words: "If, Ananda, the monk
gives up his tenacious clinging to the world, his firm grasping and his biases and
inclinations of the mind, and turns away from these things, does not cling to them, this,
Ananda, is called the contemplation on disinterestedness regarding the whole world."
sabbūpadhi-patinissagga: s. upadhi.
sacca: 'Truth'. - 1. On the 'two truths', conventional and ultimale, see paramattha.
2. 'The Four Noble Truths' (ariya-sacca) are the briefest synthesis of the
entire teachings of Buddhism, since all those manifold doctrines of the threefold canon
are, without any exception, included therein. They are: the truth of suffering, of the
origin of suffering, of the extinction of suffering, and of the Eightfold Path leading to
the extinction of suffering.
I. The 1st truth, briefly stated, teaches that all forms of existence whatsoever are
unsatisfactory and subject to suffering (dukkha).
II. The 2nd truth teaches that all suffering, and all rebirth, is produced by
III. The 3rd truth teaches that extinction of craving necessarily results in
extinction (nirodha) of rebirth and suffering, i.e. nibbāna (q.v.).
IV. The 4th truth of the Eightfold Path (magga) indicates the means by which
this extinction is attained.
The stereotype text frequently recurring in the Sutta Pitaka, runs as follows:
I. "But what, o monks, is the noble truth of suffering? Birth is suffering, decay
is suffering, death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are
suffering; in short, the 5 groups of existence connected with clinging are suffering (cf. dukkha,
II. ''But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering? It is that
craving which gives rise to fresh rebirth and, bound up with lust and greed, now here, now
there, finds ever fresh delight. It is the sensual craving (kāma-tanhā), the
craving for existence (bhava-tanhā), the craving for non-existence or
III. "But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the extinction of suffering? It
is the complete fading away and extinction of this craving, its forsaking and giving up,
liberation and detachment from it.
IV. "But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the path leading to the extinction
of suffering? It is the Noble Eightfold Path (ariya-atthangika-magga) that leads to
the extinction of suffering, namely:
|1. Right view (sammā-ditthi)
2. Right thought (sammā-sankappa)
|III. Wisdom (pa˝˝ā)
|3. Right speech (sammā-vācā)
4. Right action (sammā-kammanta)
5. Right livelihood (sammd-djiva)
|6. Right effort (sammā-vāyāma)
7. Right mindfulness (sammā-sati)
8. Right concentration (sammā-samādhi)
1. "What now, o monks, is right view (or right understanding)? It is the
understanding of suffering, of the origin of suffering, of the extinction of suffering,
and of the path leading to the extinction of suffering.
2. "What now, o monks, is right thought? It is a mind free from sensual lust,
ill-will and cruelty.
3. "What now, o monks, is right speech? Abstaining from lying, tale-bearing, harsh
words, and foolish babble (cf. tiracchānakathā).
4. "What now, o monks, is right action? Abstaining from injuring living
beings, from stealing and from unlawful sexual intercourse (s. kāmesu micchācāra).
5. "What now, o monks, is right livelihood? If the noble disciple rejects a wrong
living, and gains his living by means of right livelihood (s. magga, 5).
6. "What now, o monks, is right effort? If the disciple rouses his will to avoid
the arising of evil, demeritorious things that have not yet arisen; ... if he rouses his
will to overcome the evil, demeritorious things that have already arisen; ... if he rouses
his will to produce meritorious things that have not yet arisen; ... if he rouses his will
to maintain the meritorious things that have already arisen and not to let them disappear,
but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development; he
thus makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives (s. padhāna).
7. "What now, o monks is right mindfulness? If the disciple dwells in
contemplation of corporeality ... of feeling ... of mind ... of the mind-objects, ardent,
clearly conscious, and mindful after putting away worldly greed and grief (s. satipatthāna).
8. "What now, o monks, is right concentration? If the disciple is detached
from sensual objects, detached from unwholesome things, and enters into the first
absorption ... the second absorption ... the third absorption ... the fourth
absorption" (s. jhāna).
In the Buddha's first sermon, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, it is said that the
first truth (suffering) is to be fully understood; the second truth (craving) to be
abandoned; the third truth (Nibbāna) to be realized; the fourth truth (the path) to be
"The truth of suffering is to be compared with a disease, the truth of the origin
of suffering with the cause of the disease, the truth of extinction of suffering with the
cure of the disease, the truth of the path with the medicine" (Vis.M XVI).
In the ultimate sense, all these 4 truths are to be considered as empty of a self,
since there is no feeling agent, no doer, no liberated one. no one who follows along the
path. Therefore it is said:
'Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found.
The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there.
Nibbāna is, but not the man that enters it.
The path is, but no traveller on it is seen.
'The first truth and the second truth are empty
Of permanency, joy, of self and beauty;
The Deathless Realm is empty of an ego,
And free from permanency, joy and self, the path.' (Vis.M XVI)
It must be pointed out that the first truth does not merely refer to actual suffering,
i.e. to suffering as feeling, but that it shows that, in consequence of the universal law
of impermanency, all the phenomena of existence whatsoever, even the sublimest states of
existence, are subject to change and dissolution, and hence are miserable and
unsatisfactory; and that thus, without exception, they all contain in themselves the germ
of suffering. Cf. Guide, p. 101f.
Regarding the true nature of the path, s. magga.
Literature: Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (in WHEEL 17 and BODHI
LEAVES); M. 141; Sacca-Samyutta (S. LVI); Sacca Vibhanga; W. of B.; Vis.M XVI: The Four
Noble Truths by Francis Story (WHEEL 34/35); The Significance of the 4 Noble Truths by V.
F. Gunaratna (WHEEL 123).
sacca-˝āna: 'knowledge of the truth' (s. prec.), may be of 2 kinds: (1)
knowledge consisting in understanding (anubodha-˝āna) and (2) knowledge
consisting in penetration (pativedha-˝āna), i.e. realization. Cf. pariyatti.
"Amongst these, (1) 'knowledge consisting in understanding' is mundane (lokiya,
q.v.), and its arising with regard to the extinction of suffering, and to the path, is due
to hearsay etc. (therefore not due to one's realization of the supermundane path; s. ariya-puggala)
(2) 'Knowledge consisting in penetration', however, is supermundane (lokuttara),
with the extinction of suffering (= nibbāna) as object, it penetrates with its
functions the 4 truths (in one and the same moment), as it is said (S. LVI, 30):
whosoever, o monks, understands suffering, he also understands the origin of suffering,
the extinction of suffering, and the path leading to the extinction of suffering' "
(Vis.M XVI, 84). See visuddhi (end of article).
"Of the mundane kinds of knowledge, however, the knowledge of suffering by which
(various) prejudices are overcome, dispels the personality-belief (sakkāya-dilthi, s.
ditthi). The knowledge of the origin of suffering dispels the annihilation-view (uccheda-ditthi,
s. ditthi); the knowledge of extinction of suffering, the eternity-view (sassata-ditthi,
s. ditthi); the knowledge of the path, the view of inefficacy of action (akiriya-ditthi,
s. ditthi)" (Vis.M XVI, 85).
saccānulomika-˝āna: anuloma-˝āna (q.v.), puthujjana.
sacchikaranīyā dhammā: 'things to be realized'. Recollection of former
states of existence is to be realized through remembrance (abhi˝˝ā 4; q.v.). The
vanishing and reappearing of beings is to be realized through the divine eye (abhi˝˝ā
5; q.v.). The 8 deliverances (vimokkha, q.v.) are to be realized through the
mental group (kāya, here feeling, perception, mental formations; s. kāya). The
extinction of cankers is to be realized through insight (vipassanā).
saddhā: faith, confidence. A Buddhist is said to have faith if "he
believes in the Perfect One's (the Buddha's) Enlightenment" (M 53; A.V, 2), or in the
Three Jewels (s. ti-ratana), by taking his refuge in them (s. ti-sarana).
His faith, however, should be "reasoned and rooted in understanding" (ākāravatā
saddhā dassanamūlika; M. 47), and he is asked to investigate and test the object of
his faith (M. 47, 95). A Buddhist's faith is not in conflict with the spirit of inquiry,
and "doubt about dubitable things" (A. II, 65; S. XLII, 13) is admitted and
inquiry into them is encouraged. The 'faculty of faith' (saddhindriya) should be
balanced with that of wisdom (pa˝˝indriya; s. indriya-samatta). It is
said: "A monk who has understanding, establishes his faith in accordance with that
understanding" (S. XLVIII, 45). Through wisdom and understanding, faith becomes an
inner certainty and firm conviction based on one's own experience.
Faith is called the seed (Sn. v. 77) of all wholesome states because, according to
commentarial explanations, it inspires the mind with confidence (okappana, pasāda)
and determination (adhimokkha), for 'launching out' (pakkhandhana; s. M.
122) to cross the flood of samsāra.
Unshakable faith is attained on reaching the first stage of holiness, 'stream-entry' (sotāpatti,
s. ariyapuggala), when the fetter of sceptical doubt (vicikicchā; s. samyojana)
is eliminated. Unshakable confidence (avecca-pasāda) in the Three Jewels is one of
the characteristic qualities of the Stream-winner (sotāpannassa angāni, q.v.).
Faith is a mental concomitant, present in all karmically wholesome, and its
corresponding neutral, consciousness (s. Tab. II). It is one of the 4 streams of merit (pu˝˝adhārā,
q.v.), one of the 5 spiritual faculties (indriya, q.v.), spiritual powers (bala,
q.v.), elements of exertion (padhāniyanga, q.v.) and one of the 7 treasures (dhana,
See Faith in the Buddha's Teaching, by Soma Thera (WHEEL 262).
"Does Saddhā mean Faith?'' by Đānamoli Thera (in WHEEL 52/53).
saddhānusāri and saddhā-vimutta: the 'faith-devoted and the
'faith-liberated', are two of the 7 kinds of noble disciples (s. ariya-puggala,
sagga: 'heaven'; s. deva (heavenly heings).
sahajāta-paccaya: 'co-nascence', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
sahetuka-citta: s. hetu.
sakadāgāmī: the 'Once-returner': s. ariya-puggala, A.
sakka: the 'King of Gods' (devānam-inda), is the lord over the celestial
beings in the heaven of the Thirty-Three' (tāvatimsa, s. deva).
sakkāya: 'existing group'. 'this word is usually translated by
'personality', but according to the commentaries it corresponds to sat-kāya,
'existing group', hence not to Sanskrit sva-kāya, 'own group' or 'own body'. In
the suttas (e.g. M. 44) it is said to be a name for the 5 groups of existence (khandha):
"Sakkāya, o Brother Visākha, is said by the Blessed One to be a name for the 5
'groups as objects of clinging' (upādāna-kkhandha), to wit: corporeality,
feeling, perception, mental formations, and consciousness." - See foll.
sakkāya-ditthi: 'personality-belief', is the first of the 10 fetters (samyojana).
It is entirely abandoned only on reaching the path of Stream-winning (sotāpatti-magga;
s. ariya-puggala). There are 20 kinds of personality-belief, which are obtained by
applying 4 types of that belief to each of the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.):
(1-5) the belief to be identical with corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations
or consciousness; (6-10) to be contained in them; (11-15) to be independent of them;
(16-20) to be the owner of them (M. 44; S. XXII. 1). See prec., ditthi, upādāna
salāyatana: the '6 bases' (of mental activity); s. āyatana,
samādhi: 'concentration'; lit. 'the (mental) state of being firmly fixed' (sam+ā+Í
hā), is the fixing of the mind on a single object.
"One-pointedness of mind (cittass' ekaggatā), Brother Visakha, this is called
concentration" (M. 44). Concentration - though often very weak - is one of the 7
mental concomitants inseparably associated with all consciousness. Cf. nāma, cetanā.
Right concentration (sammā-samādhi), as the last link of the 8-fold Path
(s. magga), is defined as the 4 meditative absorptions (jhāna, q.v.). In a
wider sense, comprising also much weaker states of concentration, it is associated with
all karmically wholesome (kusala) consciousness. Wrong concentration (micchā-samādhi)
is concentration associated with all karmically unwholesome (akusala, q.v.)
consciousness. Wherever in the texts this term is not differentiated by 'right' or
'wrong', there 'right' concentration is meant .
In concentration one distinguishes 3 grades of intensity:
(1) 'Preparatory concentration' (parikamma-samādhi) existing at the beginning
of the mental exercise.
(2) 'Neighbourhood concentration' (upacāra-samādhi), i.e. concentration
'approaching' but not yet attaining the 1st absorption (jhāna, q.v.), which in
certain mental exercises is marked by the appearance of the so-called 'counter-image' (patibhāga-nimitta).
(3) 'Attainment concentration' (appanā-samādhi), i.e. that concentration
which is present during the absorptions. (App.)
Further details, s. bhāvana, Vis.M III and Fund. IV.
Concentration connected with the 4 noble path-moments (magga), and
fruition-moments (phala), is called supermundane (lokuttara), having
Nibbāna as object. Any other concentration, even that of the sublimest absorptions is
merely mundane (lokiya, q.v.).
According to D. 33, the development of concentration (samādhi-bhāvanā) may
procure a 4-fold blessing: (1) present happiness through the 4 absorptions; (2) knowledge
and vision (˝āna-dassana) - here probably identical with the 'divine eye' (s.
through perception of light (kasina); (3) mindfulness and clear comprehension
through the clear knowledge of the arising, persisting and vanishing of feelings,
perceptions and thoughts; (4) extinction of all cankers (āsavakkhaya) through
understanding the arising and passing away of the 5 groups forming the objects of clinging
Concentration is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), one of
the 5 spiritual faculties and powers (s. bala), and the last link of the 8-fold
Path. In the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (morality, concentration and wisdom), it
is a collective name for the three last links of the path (s. sikkhā).
samādhi-parikkhāra: 'means, or requisites of concentration', are the 4
foundations of mindfulness (satipatthāna q.v.). See M. 44.
samādhi-samāpatti-kusalatā, -thiti-kusalatā, -utthānakusalatā: skilfulness
in entering into concentration, in remaining in it, and in rising from it. Cf. S.XXXIV,
samādhi-sambojjhanga: 'concentration as factor of enlightenment' (s. bojjhanga).
samādhi-vipphārā iddhi: the 'power of penetrating concentration', is one of
the magical faculties (iddhi, q.v.).
samanantara-paccaya: 'contiguity', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
sāma˝˝a-phala; the 'fruits of monkhood', is the name of a famous sutta (D. 2)
and also, according to D. 33, a name for the 4 supermundane fruitions: Stream-entrance,
Once-return, Non-return, and Perfect Holiness (s. ariya-puggala).
samāpatti: 'attainments', is a name for the 8 absorptions of the fine-material
and immaterial spheres to which occasionally is added as 9th attainment, attainment of
extinction (nirodhasamāpatti) Cf. jhāna.
sama-sīsī: one 'who attains two ends simultaneously', namely: the
extinction of cankers and the end of life (s. Pug. 19). In A. VIII, 6 it is said:
"Such is the case with a monk who dwells in the contemplation of impermanency of all
forms of existence, keeping before his eyes their impermanency, perceiving their
impermanency, perseveringly, steadfastly, undisturbed, of firm mind, wisely absorbed; and
in whom at one and the same time the extinction of cankers and the end of like take
samatha: 'tranquillity', serenity, is a synonym of samādhi
(coneentration), cittekaggatā (one-pointedness of mind) and avikkhepa
(undistractedness). It is one of the mental factors in 'wholesome consciousness. Cf. foll.
samatha-vipassanā: 'tranquillity and insight', are identical with concentration
(samādhi, q.v.; s. prec.) and wisdom (pa˝˝ā, q.v.), and form the two
branches of mental development (bhāvanā, q.v.).
(1) 'Tranquillity' is all unperturbed, peaceful and lucid state of mind attained by
strong mental concentration. Though as a distinct way of practice (s. samatha-yānika),
it aims at the attainment of the meditative absorptions (jhāna, q.v.), a high
degree of tranquil concentration (though not necessarily that of the absorptions) is
indispensable for insight too. Tranquillity frees the mind from impurities and inner
obstacles, and gives it greater penetrative strength.
''What now is the power of tranquillity (samatha-bala)? It is the
one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind due to freedom from desire (renunciation)
... to freedom from ill-will ... to the perception of light (s. aloka-sa˝˝ā) ...
to non-distraction ... to the defilling of phenomena ... to knowledge, gladness, the 8
attainments, the 10 kasinas, the 10 recollections, the 9 cemetery contemplations, the 32
kinds of respiration-mindfulness ... the one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind
of one contemplating abandonment (relinquishment) while inhaling and exhaling (s.
"The power of tranquillity consists of the freedom from perturbation; in the 1st
absorption, from the 5 hindrances (nīvarana, (q.v.); in the 2nd absorption, from
thought-conception and discursive thinking; ... in the sphere of
neither-perception-nor-non-perception it consists of the freedom from perturbation by the
perception of the sphere of nothingness (s. anupubbanirodha), which is no longer
agitated and irritated by defilements associated with restlessness, nor by the groups of
existence" (Pts.M. 1. p. 97)
(2) 'Insight' (s. vipassanā) is the penetrative understanding by direct
meditative experience of the impermanency, unsatisfactoriness and impersonality of all
material and mental phenomena of existence. It is insight that leads to entrance into the
supermundance states of holiness and to final liberation.
''What now is the power of insight? It is the contemplation of impermanency (aniccānupassanā),
of misery (dukkhanupassanā), impersonality' (anattānupassanā), of
aversion (nibbidanupassanā), detachment (virāganupassanā), extinction (nirodha),
ahandonment (patinissagga), with regard to corporcality, feeling, perception,
mental formations and consciousness.... That in contemplating the impermanency one is no
more agitated by the idea of grasping ... no more by ignorance and the defilements
associated therewith and no more by the groups of existence: this is called the power of
insight" (Pts.M. p. 97).
"Two things are conducive to knowledge: tranquillity and insight. If tranquillity
is developed, what profit does it bring? The mind is developed. If the mind is developed,
what profit does it bring? All lust is abandoned.
"If insight is developed, what profit does it bring? Wisdom is developed. If
wisdom is developed, what profit does it bring? All ignorance is abandoned" (A. II,
There is a method of meditative practice where, in alternating sequence,
tranquillity-meditation and insight-meditation are developed. It is called 'tranquillity
and insight joined in pairs' (samatha-vipassanāyuganaddha), the coupling or yoking
of tranquillity and insight. He who undertakes it, first enters into the 1st absorption.
After rising from it, he contemplates the mental phenomena that were present in it
(feeling, perception, etc.) as impermanent, painful and not-self, and thus he develops
insight. Thereupon he enters into the 2nd absorption; and after rising from it, he again
considers its constituent phenomena as impermanent, etc. In this way, he passes from one
absorption to the next, until at last, during a moment of insight, the intuitive knowledge
of the path (of Stream-entry, etc.) flashes forth - See A. IV, 170; A.IX, 36; Pts:
samatha-yānika: 'one who takes tranquillity as his vehicle'. This is a name for
a person who not only has reached insight but also one or the other of the absorptions, to
distinguish him from one 'who practises only insight' (sukkha-vipassaka, q.v.).
sambodhi = bodhi (q.v.).
sambojjhanga = bojjhanga (q.v.).
sammā-ditthi, -sankappa, -vaca, etc: see magga.
sammā-magga: see micchā-magga.
sammā-ppadhāna: 'right exertion', is identical with the 6th link of the 8-fold
path (s. magga, padhāna).
sammā-sambodhi: 'Perfect Enlightenment', Universal Buddhahood, is the state
attained by a Universal Buddha (sammā-sambuddha), i.e. one by whom the liberating
law (dhamma) which had become lost to the world, has again been discovered,
realized and clearly proclaimed to the world.
"Now, someone, in things never heard before, understands by himself the truth, and
he therein attains omniscience, and gains mastery in the powers. Such a one is called a
Universal Buddha, or Enlightened One" (Pug. 29).
The doctrine characteristie of all the Buddhas, and each time rediscovered by them and
fully explained to the world, consists in the 4 Truths (sacca, q.v.) of suffering,
its origin, its extinction and the way to its extinction (s. magga). See bodhi.
sammasana: 'comprehension', exploring, 'determining' (vavatthāna,
q.v.) is a name for the determining of all phenomena of existence as impermanent,
miserable and impersonal (anicca, dukkha, anattā), etc., which is the beginning of
insight (s. Pts.M. I, p. 53; Vis.M XX); also called kalāpa-s. (q.v.),
'comprehension by groups (of existence - khandha).' (App.).
sammatta: the 'state of rightness', are the 8 links of the 8-fold Path (D. 33).
sammuti-sacca: 'conventional truth', is identical with vohāra-sacca (s. paramattha-sacca).
sampadā: 'attainment, blessing'. The 5 blessings are said to be faith,
morality, learning, liberality, wisdom (A. V, 91). Further: morality, concentration,
wisdom, deliverance, the eye of knowledge connected with deliverance (A. V, 92).
sampaja˝˝a: 'clarity of consciousness', clear comprehension. This term is
frequently met with in combination with mindfulness (sati). In D. 22, M. 10 it is
said: "Clearly conscious is he in going and coming, clearly conscious in looking
forward and backward, clearly conscious in bending and stretching his body; clearly
conscious in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting, clearly conscious in discharging
excrement and urine; clearly conscious in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep and
awakening; clearly conscious in speaking and keeping silent." - For a definition of
the term sati-sampaja˝˝a, s. Pug. 86.
According to the Com., 'clarity of consciousness' is of 4 kinds: regarding the purpose,
the suitability, (inclusion in the meditative) domain, and the undeluded conception of the
activity concerned. Explained in detail in Com. to Satipatthāna Sutta. (tr. in The Way of
Mindfulness, by Soma Thera; BPS).
sampaticchana-citta: 'receptive consciousness', is the mindelement (mano-dhātu)
that follows immediately upon the arising of sense-consciousness (visual
consciousness, etc.), performing on that occasion the function of recciving the
sense-object. Regarding the other functions of consciousness, s. vi˝˝āna-kicca.
sampayutta-paccaya: 'condition of association', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
samphassa = phassa (q.v.).
samsāra: 'round of rebirth', lit. perpetual wandering', is a name by which is
designated the sca of life ever restlessly heaving up and down, the symbol of this
continuous process of ever again and again being born, growing old, suffering and dying.
More precisely put, samsāra is the unbroken chain of the five-fold khandha-combinations,
which, constantly changing from moment to moment follow continuously one upon the other
through inconceivable periods of time. Of this samsāra, a single lifetime
constitutes only a tiny and fleeting fraction; hence to be able to comprehend the first
noble truth of universal suffering, one must let one's gaze rest upon the samsāra,
upon this frightful chain of rebirths, and not merely upon one single life-time, which, of
course, may be sometimes less painful. - Cf. tilakkhana, anattā, paramattha,
samseva: 'companionship'. (1) "Through companionship with bad men (asappurisa-s.)
comes listening to bad advice, thereby unwise reflection, thereby inattention and mental
confusion, thereby lack of sense-control, thereby 3-fold bad conduct in bodily action,
speech and mind, thereby the 5 hindrances (nīvarana, q.v.), thereby craving for
existence. (2) Through companionship with good men (sappurisa-s. ) comes listening
to good advice, thereby faith, thereby wise reflection, thereby mindfulness and clarity of
consciousness, thereby sense-control, thereby 3-fold good conduct, thereby the 4
foundations of mindfulness (satipatthāna, q.v ), thereby the 7 factors of
enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), thereby liberation through wisdom (pa˝˝ā-vimutti,
q.v.)." Cf. A. X 62.
samuccheda-pahāna: 'overcoming by destruction', is the absolute extinction of
certain fetters of existence (samyojana, q.v.), which takes place by entering into
one of the 4 supermundane paths of holiness (s. ariya-puggala). - Regarding the 5
kinds of overcoming, s. pahāna.
samudaya-sacca: 'truth of the origin', i.e. the origin of suffering, is the 2nd
of the 4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.).
samutthāna: 'origination'. There are 4 kinds of origination of corporeal
phenomena, namely: through karma, consciousness, temperature, nutriment. For example,
'karma-produced' (kamma-s. = kammaja, karma-born) are the sense organs, sexual
characteristics, etc., which, according to their nature, are conditioned either through
wholesome or unwholesome karma formations (volitional actions; s. paticcasamuppāda,
2) in a previous existence. 'Mindproduced', i.e. consciousness-produced (citta-samutthāna
= cittaja) are bodily and verbal expression (vi˝˝atti, q.v.). For a detailed
exposition, see Vis.M XX. - (App.).
samvara-padhāna: 'effort to avoid'; s. padhāna.
samvara-sīla: 'indriya-s.'; s. sīla.
samvara-suddhi: 'purity of control', is another name for morality consisting
of restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara-sīla; s. sīla).
samvatta-kappa: s. kappa.
samvega-vatthu: 'the sources of emotion', or of a sense of urgency, are 8:
"birth, old age, disease, death, being 4; the suffering in the lower states of
existence being the 5th; further, the misery of the past rooted in the cycle of rebirth,
the misery of the future rooted in the cycle of rebirth, the misery of the present rooted
in the search after food" (Vis.M III.).
samvejanīya-tthāna: 'places rousing emotion', are 4: the place where the
Perfect One was born, (i.e. the Lumbini-grove near Kapilavatthu, at the present frontier
of Nepal); the place where he reached Full Enlightenment (i.e. Uruvela, the modern Ureli,
and Buddhagayā, on the Nera˝jara-river; the modern Lilanja); the place where he, for the
first time, unveiled the Dhamma to the world (i.e. the deer-park at Isipatana near
Benares); the place where he entered the final Nibbāna (i.e. Kusināra). (A. IV, 118).
samyojana: 'fetters'. There are 10 fetters tying beings to the wheel of
existence, namely: (1) personality-belief (sakkāya-ditthi, q.v.), (2) sceptical
doubt (vicikicchā q.v.), (3) clinging to mere rules and ritual (sīlabbata-parāmāsa;
s. upādāna), (4) sensuous craving (kāma-rāga, 4.v.), (5) ill-will (vyāpāda),
(6) craving for fine-material existence (rūpa-rāga), (7) craving for immaterial
existence (arūpa-rāga), (8) conceit (māna, q.v.), (9) restlessness (uddhacca,
q.v.), (10) ignorance (avijjā, q.v.). The first five of these are called
'lower fetters' (orambhāgiya-samyojana), as they tie to the sensuous world. The
latter 5 are called 'higher fetters' (uddhambhāgiya-samyojana), as they tie to the
higher worlds, i.e. the fine-material and immaterial world (A. IX, 67, 68; X. 13; D . 33,
He who is free from 1-3 is a Sotāpanna, or Stream-winner, i.e. one who has entered the
stream to Nibbāna, as it were. He who, besides these 3 fetters, has overcome 4 and 5 in
their grosser form, is called a Sakadāgāmi, a 'Once-returner' (to this sensuous world).
He who is fully freed from 1-5 is an Anāgāmī, or 'Non-returner' (to the sensuous
world). He who is freed from all the 10 fetters is called an Arahat, i.e. a perfectly Holy
For more details, s. ariya-puggala.
The 10 fetters as enumerated in the Abhidhamma, e.g. Vibh. XVII, are: sensuous
craving, ill-will, conceit, wrong views, sceptical doubt, clinging to mere rules and
ritual, craving for existence, envy, stinginess, ignorance.
sa˝cetanā = cetanā, q.v.
sangaha-vatthu: the 4 'ways of showing favour' are liberality, kindly speech,
beneficial actions, impartiality (A. IV, 32; VIII, 24).
sangha (lit.: congregation), is the name for the Community of Buddhist monks. As
the third of the Three Gems or Jewels (ti-ratana, q.v.) and the Three Refuges (ti-sarana,
q.v.), i.e. Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, it applies to the ariya-sangha, the
community of the saints, i.e. the 4 Noble Ones (ariya-pugga, q.v.), the
sankappa: 'thought', is a synonym of vitakka (q.v.). For sammā-s.,
or right thought, s. magga (2).
sankhāra: This term has, according to its context, different shades of meaning,
which should be carefully distinguished.
(I) To its most frequent usages (s. foll. 1-4) the general term 'formation' may be
applied, with the qualifications required by the context. This term may refer either to
the act of 'forming or to the passive state of 'having been formed' or to both.
1. As the 2nd link of the formula of dependent origination, (paticcasamuppāda, q.v.),
sankhāra has the active aspect, 'forming, and signifies karma (q.v.), i.e.
wholesome or unwholesome volitional activity (cetanā) of body (kāya-s.), speech
(vacī-s.) or mind (citta- or mano-s.). This definition occurs, e.g.
at S. XII, 2, 27. For s. in this sense, the word 'karma-formation' has been coined
by the author. In other passages, in the same context, s. is defined by reference
to (a) meritorious karma-formations (pu˝˝'ābhisankhāra), (b) demeritorious k. (apu˝˝'abhisankhāra),
(c) imperturbable k. (āne˝j'ābhisankhāra), e.g. in S. XII, 51; D. 33. This
threefold division covers karmic activity in all spheres of existence: the meritorious
karma-formations extend to the sensuous and the fine-material sphere, the demeritorious
ones only to the sensuous sphere, and the 'imperturbable' only to the immaterial sphere.
2. The aforementioned three terms, kāya-, vacī- and citta-s. are
sometimes used in quite a different sense, namely as (1) bodily function, i.e.
in-and-out-breathing (e.g. M. 10), (2) verbal function, i.e. thought-conception and
discursive thinking, (3) mental-function, i.e. feeling and perception (e.g. M. 44). See nirodhasamāpatti.
3. It also denotes the 4th group of existence (sankhārakkhandha), and
includes all 'mental formations' whether they belong to 'karmically forming' consciousness
or not. See khandha, Tab. II. and S. XXII, 56, 79.
4. It occurs further in the sense of anything formed (sankhata, q.v.) and
conditioned, and includes all things whatever in the world, all phenomena of existence.
This meaning applies, e.g. to the well-known passage, "All formations are
impermanent... subject to suffering" (sabbe sankhāra aniccā ... dukkhā). In
that context, however, s. is subordinate to the still wider and all-embracing term dhamma
(thing); for dhamma includes also the Unformed or Unconditioned Element (asankhata-dhātu),
i.e. Nibbāna (e.g. in sabbe dhammā anattā, "all things are without a
(II) Sankhāra also means sometimes 'volitional effort', e.g. in the formula of
the roads to power (iddhi-pāda, q.v.); in sasankhāra- and
(s. anāgāmī, q.v.); and in the Abhidhamma terms asankhārika- (q.v.) and sasankhārika-citta,
i.e. without effort = spontaneously, and with effort = prompted.
In Western literature, in English as well as in German, sankhāra is sometimes
mistranslated by 'subconscious tendencies' or similarly (e.g Prof Beckh:
"unterbewu▀te Bildekrńfte," i.e. subconscious formative forces). This
misinterpretation derives perhaps from a similar usage in non-Buddhist Sanskrit
literature, and is entirely inapplicable to the connotations of the term in Pāli
Buddhism, as listed above under I, 1-4. For instance, within the dependent origination, s.
is neither subconscious nor a mere tendency, but is a fully conscious and active karmic
volition. In the context of the 5 groups of existence (s. above I, 3), a very few of the
factors from the group of mental formations (sankhārakkhandha) are also present as
concomitants of subconsciousness (s. Tab. I-III), but are of course not restricted to it,
nor are they mere tendencies.
sankhārupekkhā-˝āna: the 'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the formations
of existence', is one of those kinds of knowledge which form the 'purification by
knowledge and vision of the path-progress' (s. visuddhi, VI, 8). "It is known
by 3 names: in the lowest stage it is called 'knowledge consisting in the desire for
deliverance' (rnuccitu-kamyatā-˝āna); in the middle stage it is called the
'reflecting contemplation' (patisankhānupassanā˝āna); in the last stage,
however, i.e. after attaining the summit, it is called the 'equanimity-knowledge with
regard to the formations of existence' " (Vis.M XXI).
sankhata: the 'formed', i.e. anything originated or conditioned, comprises all
phenomena of existence. Cf. sankhāra I, 4; asankhata.
sankhitta citta: in the Satipatthāna Sutta, signifies the 'contracted' or
'cramped' mind, not the concentrated (samāhita) mind, as often translated by
Western authors. Cf. Satipatthāna (3).
sa˝˝ā: 1. 'perception', is one of the 5 groups of existence (khandha,
q.v.), and one of the 7 mental factors (cetasika) that are inseparably bound up
with all consciousness (s. cetanā). It is sixfold as perception of the 5 physical
sense-objects and of mental objects. It is the awareness of an object's distinctive marks
("one perceives blue, yellow, etc.," S. XXII, 79). If, in repeated perception of
an object, these marks are recognized, sa˝˝ā functions as 'memory' (s. Abh. St.,
2. sa˝˝ā stands sometimes for consciousness in its entirety, e.g. in n'eva-sa˝˝ā-n'āsa˝˝āyatana,
'the realm of neither-perception-nor- non-perception'; further, in asa˝˝ā-satta,
'unconscious beings'. In both cases reference is not to 'perception' alone, but also to
all other constituents of consciousness. Cf. D. 9.
3. sa˝˝ā may also refer to the 'ideas', which are objects of meditation, e.g.
in a group of 7 ideas, of impermanence (anicca-s. ), etc. (A. VII, 46); of 10:
impurity (asubha-s.), etc. (A. X, 56), and another set of 10 in A. X. 60; or to
wrong notions, as in nicca-, subha-s. (the notion of permanence, beauty), etc.
sa˝˝ā-vedayita-nirodha = nirodha-samāpatti (q.v.).
sa˝˝ā-vipallāsa: 'perversion of perception' (s. vipallāsa).
sa˝˝ojana = samyojana (q.v.).
santāna = santati: 'continuity', may refer to the continuity of
consciousness (citta-s.), of the groups of existence (khandha-s.), of
sub-consciousness (bhavanga-s.), of corporeality (rūpa-s.), to the
uninterrupted continuity of the paticcasamuppāda (q.v.), etc. (App.).
santīrana-citta: 'investigating consciousness', is one of the stages in the
cognitive series. For the 14 functions of consciousness. s. vi˝˝ānakicca.
santutthitā: 'contentedness'; s. ariya-vamsa.
sapadānik'anga: s. dhutanga.
sappatigha-rūpa: 'corporeality reacting to sense stimuli', refers to the 5
sense-organs (āyatana, q.v.). - Cf. Vibh. II (s. Guide II, Chap. II) and Vis.M
XIV; further s. patigha 2.
sarana: s. ti-sarana.
sāsana (lit. 'message'): the Dispensation of the Buddha, the Buddhist
religion; teaching, doctrine.
Navanga-Buddha (or satthu)-sāsana, the ninefold Dispensation of the
Buddha (or the Master) consists of suttas (sutta), mixed prose (geyya), exegesis
(veyyākarana), verses (gāthā), solemn utterances (udāna), sayings
of the Blessed One (itivuttaka), birth stories (jātaka), extraordinary
things (abbhutadhamma), and analysis (vedalla). This classification is often
found in the suttas (e.g. M. 22). According to the commentaries, also the Vinaya and the
Abhidhamma Pitaka are comprised in that ninefold division (see Atthasālini Tr., I, 33).
It is a classification according to literary styles, and not according to given texts or
sasankhāra-parinibbāyī: 'one who reaches Nibbāna with exertion', is a name
of one of the 5 kinds of Non-returners (anāgāmī, q.v.).
sasankhārika-citta (in Dhs.: sasankhārena ): a prepared, or prompted.
state of consciousness, arisen after prior deliberation (e.g. weighing of motives) or
induced by others (command, advice, persuasion) - See Tab. I; exemplified in Vis.M XIV,
84f. - Opposite: asankhārika-citta, q.v.
sassata-ditthi (-vāda): 'eternity-belief', is the belief in a soul or
personality existing independently of the 5 groups of existence, and continuing after
death eternally, as distinguished from the 'annihilation-belief' (uccheda-ditthi),
i.e. the belief in a personality falling at death a prey to absolute annihilation. For
more details, s. ditthi.
sati: 'mindfulness', is one of the 5 spiritual faculties and powers (s. bala),
one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), and the 7th link of the
8-fold Path (magga, q.v.), and is, in its widest sense, one of those mental factors
inseparably associated with all karmically wholesome (kusala, q.v.) and
karma-produced lofty (sobhana) consciousness (Cf. Tab. II). - For the 4 foundations
of mindfulness s. foll.
satipatthāna: the 4 'foundations of mindfulness', lit. 'awarenesses of
mindfulness' (sati-upatthāna), are: contemplation of body, feeling, mind and
mind-objects. - For sati, s. prec.
A detailed treatment of this subject, so important for the practice of Buddhist mental
culture, is given in the 2 Satipatthāna Suttas (D. 22; M. 10), which at the start as well
as the conclusion, proclaim the weighty words: "The only way that leads to the
attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the end of pain and
grief, to the entering of the right path, and to the realization of Nibbāna is the 4
foundations of mindfulness."
After these introductory words, and upon the question which these 4 are, it is said
that the monk dwells in contemplation of the body, the feelings, the mind, and the
mind-objects, "ardent, clearly conscious and mindful, after putting away worldly
greed and grief."
These 4 contemplations are in reality not to be taken as merely separate exercises, but
on the contrary, at least in many cases, especially in the absorptions, as things
inseparably associated with each other. Thereby the Satipathāna Sutta forms an
illustration of the way in which these 4 contemplations relating to the 5 groups of
existence (khandha, q.v.) simultaneously come to be realized, and finally lead to
insight into the impersonality of all existence.
(1) The contemplation of the body (kāyanupassanā) consists of the following
exercises: mindfulness with regard to in-and-outbreathing (ānāpānasati, q.v.),
minding the 4 postures (iriyāpatha, q.v.), mindfulness and clarity of
consciousness (satisampaja˝˝a, q.v.), reflection on the 32 parts of the body (s. kāyagatāsati
and asubha), analysis of the 4 physical elements (dhātuvavatthāna, q.v.),
cemetery meditations (sīvathikā q.v.).
(2) All feelings (vedanānupassanā) that arise in the meditator he clearly
perceives, namely: agreeable and disagreeable feeling of body and mind, sensual and
super-sensual feeling, indifferent feeling .
(3) He further clearly perceives and understands any state of consciousness or mind
(cittānupassanā), whether it is greedy or not, hateful or not, deluded or not,
cramped or distracted, developed or undeveloped, surpassable or unsurpassable,
concentrated or unconcentrated, liberated or unliberated.
(4) Concerning the mind-objects (dhammānupassanā), he knows whether one of the
five hindrances (nīvarana, q.v.) is present in him or not, knows how it arises,
how it is overcome, and how in future it does no more arise. He knows the nature of each
of the five groups (khandha, q.v.), how they arise, and how they are dissolved. He
knows the 12 bases of all mental activity (āyatana q.v.): the eye and the visual
object, the ear and the audible object, .. mind and mind-object, he knows the fetters
(samyojana, q.v.) based on them, knows how they arise, how they are overcome, and how
in future they do no more arise. He knows whether one of the seven factors of
enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.) is present in him or not, knows how it arises, and
how it comes to full development. Each of the Four Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.) he
understands according to reality.
The 4 contemplations comprise several exercises, but the Satipatthāna should not
therefore be thought of as a mere collection of meditation subjects, any one of which may
be taken out and practised alone. Though most of the exercises appear also elsewhere in
the Buddhist scriptures, in the context of this sutta they are chiefly intended for the
cultivation of mindfulness and insight, as indicated by the repetitive passage concluding
each section of the sutta (see below). The 4 contemplations cover all the 5 groups of
existence (khandha, q.v.), because mindfulness is meant to encompass the whole
personality. Hence, for the full development of mindfulness, the practice should extend to
all 4 types of contemplation, though not every single exercise mentioned under these four
headings need be taken up. A methodical practice of Satipatthāna has to start with one of
the exercises out of the group 'contemplation of the body', which will serve as the
primary and regular subject of meditation: The other exercises of the group and the other
contemplatons are to be cultivated when occasion for them arises during meditation and in
After cach contemplation it is shown how it finally leads to insight-knowledge:
"Thus with regard to his own body he contemplates the body, with regard to the bodies
of others he contemplates the body, with regard to both he contemplates the body. He
beholds how the body arises and how it passes away, beholds the arising and passing away
of the body. 'A body is there' (but no living being, no individual, no woman, no man, no
self, nothing that belongs to a self; neither a person, nor anything belonging to a
person; Com.): thus he has established his attentiveness as far as it serves his knowledge
and mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world.''
In the same way he contemplates feeling, mind and mind-objects.
In M. 118 it is shown how these four foundations of mindfulness may be brought about by
the exercise of mindfulness on in-and-out breathing (ānāpāna-sati, q.v.).
Literature: The Way of Mindfullness, tr. of Sutta and Com., by Soma
Thera (3rd ed; Kandy 1967, BPS). - The Heart of Buddhist Meditation, by Nyanaponika Thera
(3rd ed.; London. Rider & Co.). The Foundations of Mindfulness (tr. of M. 10),
Nyanasatta Thera (Wheel 19). The Satipatthāna Sutta and its Application to Modern Life,
V. F. Gunaratna (WHEEL 60). - The Power of Mindfulness by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL
sati-sambojjhanga: 'mindfulness as factor of enlightenment' s. bojjhanga.
sati-sampaja˝˝a: 'mindfulness and clarity of consciousness, s. sampaja˝˝a.
satta: 'living being'. This term, just like attā, puggala, jīva, and
all the other terms denoting 'ego-entity', is to be considered as a merely conventional
term (vohāra-vacana), not possessing any reality-value. For the impersonality of
all existence. s. anattā, paramattha, puggala, jīva, satta, paticcasamuppāda.
sattakkhattu-parama: 'one wth only 7 further rebirths at the utmost', is one
of the 3 kinds of Stream-winners (sotāpanna, q.v.).
sattāvāsa, nava: 'abodes of beings'. In the sutta-texts (e.g. D. 33; A.IX, 24)
9 such abodes are mentioned:
"There are, o monks, 9 abodes of beings, namely:
(1) "There are beings who are different in body and different in perception, such
as the human beings, some heavenly beings, and some beings living in the world of
suffering (vinipātika, q.v.).
(2) ''There are beings who are different in body but equal in perception, such as the
first-born gods of the Brahma-world (i.e. at the beginning of each new world-formation; s.
(3) ''There are beings who are equal in body but different in perception, such as the
Radiant Gods (ābhassara, s. deva II).
(4) "There are beings who are equal in body and equal in perception, such as the
All-Illuminating Gods (subha-kinha; s. deva II).
(5) "There are beings without perception and feeling, such as the unconscious
beings (asa˝˝a-satta, q.v.).
(6) "There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of perceptions of
matter (rūpa-sa˝˝a), the disappearance of perceptions of sense-reaction (patigha-sa˝˝a),
and the non-attention to perceptions of variety thinking: 'Boundless is space', are
reborn in the sphere of buundless space (s. deva, III; jhāna, 5).
(7) "There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of
boundless space, thinking: 'Boundless is consciousness', are reborn in the sphere of
boundless consciousness (s. jhāna 6).
(8) "There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of
boundless consciousness, thinking: 'Nothing is there, are reborn in the sphere of
nothingness (s. jhāna, 7).
(9) "There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of
nothingness, are reborn in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception (s. jhāna,
8)" (A. IX, 24).
According to the Com. to A., the beings of the Pure Abodes (suddhāvāsa, q.v.)
are not mentioned here, for the reason that they exist only in those world-periods in
which Buddhas appear. Cf. vi˝˝āna-tthiti.
sa-upādisesa-nibbāna: s. nibbāna, upādi.
sāvaka: 'hearer', i.e. 'disciple', refers, in a restricted sense (then
mostly ariya-sāvaka, 'nohle disciple'), only to the 8 kinds of noble disciples (ariya-puggala,
sāvaka-bodhi: 'enlightenment of the disciple', designates the holiness of the
disciple, as distinguished from the holiness of the Pacceka-Buddha (q.v.) and the
sceptical doubt: vicikicchā (q.v.). Cf. kankhā.
scruples: kukkucca (q.v.).
sekha: a 'noble learner', a disciple in higher training, i.e. one who pursues
the 3 kinds of training (sikkhā, q.v.), is one of those 7 kinds of noble disciples
who have reached one of the 4 supermundane paths or the 3 lower fruitions (s. ariya-puggala),
while the one possessed of the 4th fruition, or Arahatta-phala, is called 'one beyond
training' (asekha, lit. 'no more learner'). The worldling (puthujjana, q.v.)
is called 'neither a noble learner, nor perfected in learning' (n'eva-sekha-nāsekha). Cf.
self: attā (q.v.).
self-annihilation, craving for: vibhava-tanhā (s. tanhā).
self-confidence: vesārajja (q.v.).
self-mortification: atta-kilamatha (q.v.).
senāsana: 'dwelling place', is one of the 4 requisites of the monk's life (s. sīla
4). To be suitable for spiritual training, it should possess 5 advantages. As it is said
(A. X, 11): "But how, o monks, does the dwelling place possess 5 advantages? Such a
dwelling place is not too far, nor too near (to the village), is suitable for going (on
almsround) and returning. In the daytime it is not much crowded, and at night without
noise and bustle. One is not much molested there by gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, sun and
creeping things. While living there, the monk without difficulty obtains robes, almsfood,
dwelling, and the necessary medicines. There are elder monks living there, with great
learning, well versed in the Message, masters of the Law (dhamma), of the
Discipline (vinaya) and of the Tables of Contents (i.e. either the twofold
Abhidhamma Matrix, or the Bhikkhu and Bhikkhuni Pātimokkha; s. pātimokkha). And
he approaches them from time to time, questions them, asks them for explanations, etc.
sense-organs and objects: s. āyatana, dhātu.
sense-stimuli, corporeality responding to: s. āyatana.
sensitive corporeality: pasāda-rūpa (q.v.).
sensuality (subj. & obj.): kāma (q.v.).
sensuous clinging: kāmūpādāna; s. upādāna.
sensuous craving: kāma-tanhā (-rāga), is one of the 10
fetters (samyojana, q.v.), and one of the 3 kinds of craving (tanhā, q.v.).
sensuous sphere (-world): s. avacara, loka.
serenity: s. samatha.
seven rebirths at the utmost: s. sotāpanna.
sex: s. bhāva.
sexual intercourse, unlawful: s. kāmesu micchācāra.
shame: hiri (q.v.).
shamelessness: ahirika (q.v.).
signless (animitta): s. ceto-vimutti, vimokkha, vipassanā.
sikkhā: the 'training', which the Buddha's disciple has to undergo, is
3-fold: training in higher morality (adhisīla-sikkhā), in higher mentality
(adhicitta-sikkhā), and in higher wisdom (adhipa˝˝ā-sikkhā). This 3-fold
training refers to the 3-fold division of the the 8-fold Path (magga, q.v.) in
morality, concentration and wisdom (sīla, samādhi, pa˝˝ā). In D. 16 and A.IV,1
it is said:
"It is through not understanding, not penetrating noble morality ... noble
concentration ... noble wisdom ... noble deliverance that I, as well as you, have had for
such a long time to pass through this round of rebirths.''
"This then is morality, this concentration, this wisdom, this deliverance. Being
endowed with morality, concentration brings high fruit and blessing. Being endowed with
concentration, wisdom hrings high fruit and blessing. Being endowed with wisdom, the mind
becomes freed from all cankers (āsava q.v.) namely, from the sensuous canker (kāmāsava),
from the canker of existence (bhavasava) from the canker of opinions (ditthisava)
from the canker of ignorance (avijjāsava).
sikkhāpada: 'steps of training', moral rules.
The 5 moral rules, also called pa˝ca-sīla which are binding on all Buddhist
laymen, are: (1) abstaining from killing any living being, (2) from stealing, (3) from
unlawful sexual intercourse, (4) from lying, (5) from the use of intoxicants.(s. surāmeraya
The 10 rules (dasa-sīla) are binding on all novices and monks, namely: (1)
abstaining from killing, (2) from stealing, (3) from unchastity, (4) from lying, (5) from
the use of intoxicants, (6) from eating after midday, (7) from dancing, singing, music and
shows, (8) from garlands, scents, cosmetics and adornments, etc., (9) from luxurious beds,
(10) from accepting gold and silver.
In the 8 rules (attha-sīla) which on full and new moon days, and on the first
and last quarter of the moon, are observed by many lay-followers (upāsaka, q.v.),
the 7th and 8th of the above 10 rules are fused into one as the 7th rule, while the 9th
becomes the 8th.
sīla: 'morality', 'virtue', is a mode of mind and volition (cetana,
q.v.) manifested in speech or bodily action (s. karma). It is the foundation of the whole
Buddhist practice, and therewith the first of the 3 kinds of training (sikkhā,
q.v.) that form the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (s. magga), i.e. morality,
concentration and wisdom.
Buddhist morality is not, as it may appear from the negative formulations in the
Sutta-texts, something negative. And it does not consist in the mere not committing of
evil actions, but is in each instance the clearly conscious and intentional restraint from
the bad actions in question and corresponds to the simultaneously arising volition.
Morality of the 8-fold Path, namely, right speech, right action and right livelihood,
is called 'genuine or natural morality' pakatisīla), as distinguished from the
external rules for monks or laymen, the so-called 'prescribed morality' (pa˝˝atti-sīla,
q.v.), which, as such, is karmically neutral.
"What now is karmically wholesome morality (kusala-sīla)? It is the
wholesome bodily action (kāya-kamma, s. karma), wholesome verbal action (vacī-kamma,
s. karma), and also the purity with regard to livelihood which I call morality" (M.
78). Cf. magga, 3-5.
For the 5, 8 and 10 rules, s. sikkhāpada. Further cf. cāritta- and vāritta-sīla.
The 4 kinds of morality consisting of purification (catupārisuddhi-sīla) are:
(1) restraint with regard to the monks' Disciplinary Code, (2) restraint of the senses,
(3) purification of livelihood, (4) morality with regard to the 4 requisites (of the monk)
(1) Restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code (pātimokkha-samvara-sīla).
"Here the monk is restrained in accordance with the monks' Disciplinary Code, is
perfect in conduct and behaviour, and perceiving danger even in the least offences, he
trains himself in the rules he has taken upon him" (A . V, 87,109 ,114, etc. ) .
(2) Restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara-sīla). "Whenever the monk
perceives a form with the eye, a sound with the ear, an odour with the nose, a taste with
the tongue, an impression with the body, an object with the mind, he neither adheres to
the appearance as a whole, nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which
evil and unwholesome things, greed and sorrow, would arise, if he remained with unguarded
senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses" (M 38).
(3) Purification of livelihood (ājīva-pārisuddhi-sīla). It consists therein
that the monk does not acquire his livelihood in a way unbefitting to a monk.
(4) Morality with regard to the 4 rcquisites (paccaya-sannissita-sīla). It
consists therein that the monk is guided by the right mental attitude when making use of
the 4 requisites: robes, almsfood, dwelling and medicine. "Wisely reflecting he makes
use of his robes ... merely to protect himself against cold and heat, etc. Wisely
reflecting he makes use of his almsfood... merely as a prop and support to this body....
Wisely reflecting he makes use of his dwelling... merely to keep off the dangers of
weather and to enjoy solitude.... Wisely rerlecting he makes use of the necessary
medicines, merely to suppress feelings of sickness that arise, and to reach perfect
freedom from suffering" (cf. M. 2).
About these 4 kinds of morality, Vis.M I gives a detailed exposition.
sīlabbata-parāmāsa and -upādāna: 'attachment (or clinging) to mere rules
and ritual', is the 3rd of the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.), and one of the 4 kinds
of clinging (upādāna, q.v.). It disappears on attaining to Stream-entry (sotāpatti).
For definition, s. upādāna.
sīla-samādhi-pa˝˝ā: s. sikkhā, magga.
silent buddha: pacceka-buddha (q.v.).
sitting position, sleeping in: s. dhutanga.
sīvathikā: 'cemetery contemplations', as deseribed in D. 22 and M. 10, have as
their objects a corpse one or two or three days old, swollen up, blue-black in colour,
full of corruption; a corpse eaten by crows, etc.; a framework of bones; flesh hanging
from it, bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews; without flesh and blood, but
still held together by the sinews; bones scattered in all direction; bleached and
resembling shells; heaped together after the lapse of years; weathered and crumbled to
dust. At the end of each of these contemplations there follows the conclusion: "This
body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, cannot escape it." Similar are
the 10 objects of loathsomeness (asubha q.v.).
skilful: kusala (q.v.).
sloth: middha, s. nīvarana.
sobhana: 'lofty', beautiful, pure, are called, in Abh. S., all states of
consciousness excepting the unwholesome and those without roots (ahetuka). Sobhana-sādhārana
are called the mental factors (cetasika) common to all lofty consciousness; s. Tab.
somanassa: lit 'glad-minded-ness' (su+manas+ya), gladness, joy; identical
with 'mentally agreeable feeling' (cetasikā sukhā vedanā), belongs to the
feeling-group (vedanā-kkhandha, s. khandha II), and is enumerated amongst
the 22 faculties (indriya, q.v.). It may or may not be associated with karmically
wholesome consciousness (s. Tab. I. 1-4, 9-12, 18-21), with karmically unwholesome
consciousness (greedy c. ib. 22-25), and with karmically neutral consciousness (ib. 40,
42-45, 57-60, 66-69, 72-76. 81-84), - Somanassa is not identical with pīti
somanassūpavicāra: 'indulging in gladness'; s. mano-pavicāra.
something: ki˝cana (q.v.).
sotāpanna: the 'Stream-winner', is the lowest of the 8 noble disciples (s. ariya-puggala).
Three kinds are to be distinguished: the one 'with 7 rebirths at the utmost' (sattakkhattu-parama),
the one 'passing from one noble family to another' (kolankola), the one
'germinating only once more' (eka-bījī). As it is said (e.g. Pug. 37-39; A. III,
(1) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters (personality-belief,
skeptical doubt, attachment to rules and ritual; s. samyojana), has entered the
stream (to Nibbāna), he is no more subject to rebirth in lower worlds, is firmly
established, destined to full enlightenment. After having passed amongst the heavenly and
human beings only seven times more through the round of rebirths, he puts an end to
suffering. Such a man is called 'one with 7 births at the utmost' (sattakkhattu-parama).
(2) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters.... is destined to
full enlightenment, he, after having passed among noble families two or three times
through the round of rebirths, puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one passing
from one noble family to another' (kolankola).
(3) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters.... is destined to
full enlightenment, he, after having only once more returned to human existence, puts an
end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one germinating only once more' (eka-bījī).
See Sotāpatti-Samyutta (S. LV).
sotāpannassa angāni: the 'characteristic qualities of a Stream-winner' are 4:
unshakable faith towards the Enlightened One, unshakable faith towards the Doctrine,
unshakable faith towards the Order, and perfect morality. Explained in S. LV, I, D. 33, in
S. XLVII, 8 and in Netti-ppakarana these 4 qualities are called sotāpattiyanga
sotāpatti: 'Stream-entry'; s. sotāpanna; s. -magga, -phala, 'path
and fruition of Stream-entry'; s. ariyapuggala.
sotāpattiyanga: the 4 (preliminary) 'conditions to Stream-entry' are:
companionship with good persons, hearing the Good Law, wise reflection, living in
conformity with the Law (S. LV, 5; D. 33). Cf. sotāpannassa angāni.
space: s. ākāsa.
spheres (of existence): avacara (q.v.). - The 4 immaterial spheres (āyatana):
s. jhāna (5-8).
spiritual faculties: s. indriya (15-19), indriya-samatta, bala.
spontaneously born beings: opapātika (q.v.).
stains, the 3: mala (q.v.).
standstill (of morality etc.): s. hāna-bhāgiya-sīla. S. of
existence: vivatta (q.v.).
stinginess: macchariya (q.v.); cf. Tab. II.
stored-up karma: katattā; s. karma.
stream-entry: s. sotāpanna, ariya-puggala.
streams of merit: pu˝˝adhārā (q.v.).
stream-winner: s. sotāpanna, ariya-puggala.
stupid-natured: s. carita.
subconscious stream (of existence): bhavanga-sota (q.v.).
subha-kinha (or-kinna): s. deva, II.
subha-nimitta: 'beautiful (or attractive) object of mind'; it may become an
inducement to the arising of sense-desire (kāmacchanda; s. nīvarana):
"No other thing do I know, o monks, through which in such a degree sense-desire may
arise, and once arisen will continue to grow, as an attractive object. Whoso does not
wisely consider an attractive object, in him sense-desire will arise, and once arisen will
continue to grow" (A. I, 2).
subha-sa˝˝ā, -citta, -ditthi: 'the perception (consciousnes or view) of
beauty (or purity)' in what is actually devoid of it (asubhe subha-sa˝˝ā), is
one of the 4 perversions (vipallāsa, q.v.).
sublime abodes (or States): brahma-vihāra (q.v.).
substrata of existence: upadhi (q.v.).
sucarita: 'good conduct', is 3-fold, in body, speech and mind, and comprises the
10 wholesome courses of action (s. kammapatha). According to A. X, 61, it has
sense-control as its condition. See D. 33, A. II, 17; III, 2.
successive births, karma ripening in: s. karma.
suchness: tathatā (q.v.).
sudassa, sudassī: s. foll.
suddhāvāsa: the 'Pure Abodes', are a group of 5 heavens belonging to the
fine-material world (rūpa-loka, s. loka), where only the Non-returners (s.
q.v.) are reborn, and in which they attain Arahatship and Nibbāna (ariya-puggala).
The names of the inhabitants of these Pure Abodes are: Āviha, Ātappa, Sudassa,
Sudassī, Akanittha. Cf. anāgāmī.
suddha-vipassanā-yānika = sukkha-vipassaka (q.v.).
suffering: For the 4 Truths of suffering, s. sacca; further s. ti-lakkhana.
sugati: 'happy course of existence'; s. gati.
sukha: pleasant, happy; happiness, pleasure, joy, bliss. It is one of the
three feelings (s. vedanā) and may be either bodily or mental. The texts
distinguish between the happiness of the senses and the h. of renunciation (A. II),
worldly (carnal; sāmisa) and unworldly (non-carnal; nirāmisa) happiness
(M. 10). See A. II, ch. VIII. - Happiness is an indispensable condition for attaining
concentration of mind (samādhi, q.v.), and therefore it is one of the 5 factors
(or constituents) of the 1st absorption (jhānanga; s. jhāna) and is
present up to the 3rd absorption inclusively. "The mind of the happy one has
concentration as its fruit and reward" (A.X,1). - "In him who is filled with
happiness, right concentration has found a foundation" (A.X,3).
sukha-sa˝˝ā, -citta, -ditthi: 'the perception (consciousness or view) of
happiness' in what is actually suffering (dukkhe sukha-sa˝˝ā), i.e. any form of
existence, it is one of the perversions (vipallāsa, q.v.).
sukkha-vipassaka: 'one supported by bare insight', is the commentarial term for
one who, without having attained any of the meditative absorptions (jhāna, q.v.),
has realized only by the support of insight (vipassanā, q.v.) one or several of
the supermundane paths (s. ariyapuggala). In Vis.M XVIII, he is called suddha-vipassanā-yānika,
as distinguished from 'one who has tranquillity as vehicle' (samathayānika, q.v.).
Though the primary meaning of sukkha as intended here is as stated above,
subcommentaries (e.g. D. Tīkā) employ also the literal meaning of sukkha, i.e.
'dry': "His insight is dry, rough, unmoistened by the moisture of tranquillity
meditation." This justifies a frequent rendering of this term by 'dry-visioned' or
'having dry insight', which, however, should not lead to misconceptions about the nature
of insight meditation as being 'dry' or 'merely intellectual', while in fact the
development of insight will produce rapture (pīti) and a sense of urgency (samvega)
in the meditator. - (App.).
su˝˝a (adj.), su˝˝atā (noun): void (ness), empty (emptiness). As a
doctrinal term it refers, in Theravāda, exclusively to the anattā doctrine,.i.e.
the unsubstantiality of all phenomena: "Void is the world ... because it is void of a
self and anything belonging to a self" (su˝˝am attena vā attaniyena vā; S.
XXXV, 85); also stated of the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.) in the same
text. See also M. 43, M. 106. - In CNidd. (quoted in Vis.M XXI, 55), it is said:
"Eye ... mind, visual objects ... mind-objects, visual consciousness ...
mind-consciousness, corporeality ... consciousness, etc., are void of self and anything
belonging to a self; void of permanency and of anything lasting, eternal or immutable..
They are coreless: without a core of permanency, or core of happiness or core of
self." - In M. 121, the voiding of the mind of the cankers, in the attainment of
Arahatship, is regarded as the "fully purified and incomparably highest (concept of)
voidness. - See Sn. v. 1119; M. 121; M. 122 (WHEEL 87); Pts.M. II: Su˝˝a-kathā; Vis.M
su˝˝atānupassanā: 'contemplation of emptiness' (s. prec.), is one of the 18
chief kinds of insight (vipassanā, q.v.). Cf. Vis.M XXI.
su˝˝atā-vimokkha: 'emptiness-deliverance'; s. vimokkha.
superiority-conceit: s. māna.
supermundane: lokuttara (q.v.); -faculties, s. indriya
supernormal: mahaggata (q.v.); -knowledges, s. abhi˝˝ā.
support, decisive support: (nissaya, upanissaya) are two of the 24
conditions (s. paccaya).
supportive karma: upatthambhaka-kamma; s. karma.
suppressive karma: upapīlaka-kamma; s. karma.
surāmeraya-majja-ppamādatthānā veramanī sikkhāpadam samādiyāmi: "I
take upon myself the vow to abstain from taking intoxicants and drugs such as wine,
liquor, etc. since they lead to moral carelessness." This is the wording of the last
of the 5 moral rules (s. sikkhāpada) binding on all Buddhists .
susānik'anga: s. dhutanga.
suta-mayā pa˝˝ā: 'knowledge based on learning'; s. pa˝˝ā.