dāna: 'almsgiving', liberality, offering. "He
who gives alms, bestows a fourfold blessing: he helps to long life, good appearance,
happiness and strength. Therefore long life, good appearance, happiness and strength will
be his share, whether amongst heavenly beings or amongst men" (A. IV, 57).
"Five blessings accrue to the giver of alms: the
affection of many, noble association, good reputation, self-confidence, and heavenly
rebirth" (see A. V, 34). Seven further blessings are given in A. VII, 54.
Liberality, especially the offering of robes, food, etc.,
to the monks, is highly praised in all Buddhist countries of Southern Asia as a
fundamental virtue and as a means to suppress man's inborn greed and egoism. But, as in
any other good or bad action, so also in offering gifts, it is the noble intention and
volition that really counts as the action, not the mere outward deed.
Almsgiving or liberality (dāna), constitutes the
first. kind of meritorious activity, the two others being morality (sīla, q.v.)
and mental development (bhāvanā); s. puñña-kiriya-vatthu. Liberality
(cāga) forms one of the 10 recollections (anussati, q.v.) and almsgiving one
of the 10 perfections (s. pāramī).
dasa-(tathāgata-) bala: 'the ten powers (of a
Perfect One); or, he who Possesses the 10 P.', i.e. the Buddha. About him it is said
(e.g., M. 12.; A. X, 21):
There, o monks, the Perfect One understands according to
reality the possible as possible, and the impossible as impossible ... the result of past,
present and future actions ... the path leading to the welfare of all ... the world with
its many different elements ... the different inclinations in beings ... the lower and
higher faculties in beings ... the defilement, purity and rising with regard to the
absorptions, deliverances, concentration and attainments ... remembering many former
rebirths ... perceiving with the divine eye how beings vanish and reappear again according
to their actions (karma) ... gaining, through extinction of all taints, possession of
'deliverance of mind' and 'deliverance through wisdom' ...."
dasaka-kalāpa: s. rūpa-kalāpa.
dasa-pāramī: s. pāramī.
dasa-puñña-kiriya-vatthu: s. puñña-kiriya-vatthu.
death: marana (q.v.) - Contemplation of
°: maranānussati (q.v.) - As divine messenger: deva-dūta (q.v.).
death-consciousness: cuti-citta, is one of
the 14 functions of consciousness (viññāna-kicca, q.v.).
deathlessness: amata (q.v.).
death-proximate karma: maranāsaññā-kamma;
deciding function (of consciousness): s. viññāna-kicca.
decline (in morality, wisdom, etc.): s. hāna-bhāgiya-sīla.
- Liable to °, parihāna-dhamma (q.v.).
defilements: s. kilesa, upakkilesa. -10 d.
of insight: vipassanūpakkilesa, s. visuddhi VI. - Round of d., s. vatta
deliverance: s. vimutti, vimokkha. - The 8
kinds of d. (or liberation), s. vimokkha. - D. of mind, d.
through voidness, boundless d. etc., s. ceto-vimutti. - Desire for d.,
s. visuddhi (VI, 6). - D. through wisdom; paññā-vimutti (q.v.). -
3 doors of d. (or gateways of liberation) s. visuddhi (VI, 8).
deluded consciousness: s. Tab. I. 32, 33.
deluded-natured: moha-carita; s. carita.
delusion: s. moha, avijjā.
demons' realm: asura-nikāya; s. apāya.
departed, the spirits of the: peta (q.v.).
dependent origination: paticca samuppāda
derived corporeality: upādā-rūpa (q.v.);
further s. khandha (I. B.).
desanā: 'exposition' of the doctrine, may be
either an exposition true in the highest sense (paramattha-desanā); or it may not
be true in the highest, but only in the conventional sense (vohāra-desanā). See paramattha.
desire for deliverance: s. visuddhi (VI, 6).
desireless deliverance: s. vimokkha (1).
desirelessness, contemplation on: s.
destiny, evil views with fixed d.: niyata-micchā-ditthi
(q.v.). Men with fixed d.: niyata-puggala (q.v.). See gati.
destruction: overcoming, or liberation from, evil
things through their d.; samuccheda-pahāna or samuccheda-vimutti; s.
destructive karma: upaghātaka-kamma; s.
detachment: viveka (q.v.).
determination: s. adhimokkha, adhitthāna.
determining: votthapana (s. viññāna-kicca).
determining the reality: s. vavatthāna.
deva (lit: the Radiant Ones; related to Lat. deus):
heavenly beings, deities, celestials, are beings who live in happy worlds, and who, as
a rule, are invisible to the human eye. They are subject, however, just like all human and
other beings, to ever-repeated rebirth, old age and death, and thus are not freed from the
cycle of existence and from misery. There are many classes of heavenly beings.
I. The 6 classes of heavenly beings of the sensuous sphere
(kāmāvacara or kāma-loka; s. avacara loka), are Cātumahārājika-deva,
Tāvatimsa, Yāma, Tusita (s. Bodhisatta), Nimmāna-rati, Paranimmita-vasavatti. Cf. anussati.
II. The heavenly beings of the fine-material sphere
(rūpāvacara or rūpaloka) are:
1. Brahma-pārisajja, Brahma-purohita, Mahā-brahmāno
(s. brahma-kāyika-deva). Amongst these 3 classes will be reborn those with a weak,
medium or full experience of the 1st absorption (jhāna, q.v.).
2. Parittābha, Appamānābha, Ābhassara. Here
will be reborn those with experience of the 2nd absorption.
3. Paritta-subha, Appamāna-subha, Subha-kinna (or kinha).
Here will be reborn those with experience of the 3rd absorption.
4. Vehapphala, Asañña-satta (q.v.), Suddhāvāsa
(q.v.; further s. Anāgāmi). Amongst the first 2 classes will be reborn those with
experience of the 4th absorption, but amongst the 3rd class only Anāgāmis (q.v.).
III. The 4 grades of heavenly beings of the immaterial
sphere (arūpāvacara or arūpa-loka) are: the heavenly beings of the sphere
of unbounded space (ākāsānañcāyatanūpaga-devā), of unbounded consciousness (viññānañcāyatanūpaga-deva),
of nothingness (ākiñcaññāyatanūpaga devā), of neither-perception-nor-
non-perception (nevasaññā-nāsaññāyatanūpaga-devā). Here will be reborn
those with experience of the 4 immaterial spheres (arūpāyatana; s. jhāna
See Gods and the Universe by Francis Story
deva-dūta: 'divine messengers', is a
symbolic name for old age, disease and death, since these three things remind man of his
future and rouse him to earnest striving. In A. III, 35, it is said:
"Did you, o man, never see in the world a man or a
woman eighty, ninety or a hundred years old, frail, crooked as a gable-roof, bent down,
resting on crutches, with tottering steps, infirm, youth long since fled, with broken
teeth, grey and scanty hair, or baldheaded, wrinkled, with blotched limbs? And did it
never occur to you that you also are subject to old age, that you also cannot escape it?
"Did you never see in the world a man or a woman, who
being sick, afflicted and grievously ill, and wallowing in their own filth, was lifted up
by some people, and put down by others? And did it never occur to you that you also are
subject to disease, that you also cannot escape it?
"Did you never see in the world the corpse of a man
or a woman, one or two or three days after death, swollen up, blue-black in colour, and
full of corruption? And did it never occur to you that you also are subject to death, that
you also cannot escape it?" - See M. 130.
devatānussati: 'recollection of the heavenly
beings'; s. anussati.
development (mental): bhāvanā (q.v.). -
Effort to develop, s. padhāna. - Wisdom based on d. s. paññā. - Gradual d.
of the Eightfold Path in the 'progress of the disciple' (q.v.).
deviation: (from morality and understanding): vipatti
devotee: upāsaka (q.v.) .
dhamma: lit. the 'bearer', constitution (or nature
of a thing), norm, law (jus), doctrine; justice, righteousness; quality; thing,
object of mind (s. āyatana) 'phenomenon'. In all these meanings the word
'dhamma' is to be met with in the texts. The Com. to D. instances 4 applications of
this term guna (quality, virtue), desanā (instruction), pariyatti
(text), nijjīvatā (soullessness, e.g. "all dhammā, phenomena, are
impersonal," etc.). The Com. to Dhs. has hetu (condition) instead of
Thus, the analytical knowledge of the law (s. patisambhidā) is explained in Vis.M
XIV. and in Vibh. as hetumhi-ñāna, knowledge of the conditions.
The Dhamma, as the liberating law discovered and
proclaimed by the Buddha, is summed up in the 4 Noble Truths (s. sacca). It forms
one of the 3 Gems (ti-ratana, q.v.) and one of the 10 recollections (anussati
Dhamma, as object of mind (dhammāyatana, s.
may be anything past, present or future, corporeal or mental, conditioned or not (cf. sankhāra,
4), real or imaginary.
dhamma-cakka: The 'Wheel (realm) of the Law', is a
name for the doctrine 'set rolling' (established) by the Buddha, i.e. the 4 Noble Truths
"The Perfect One, o monks, the Holy One, fully
Enlightened One, in the Deer Park at Isipatana near Benares, has set rolling (established)
the unsurpassed Wheel (realm) of the Law" (M. 141). Cf. cakka.
dhamma-desanā: 'exposition of the Doctrine
(law)'; s. desanā.
dhamma-dhātu: mind-object-element (s. dhātu).
dhammānupassanā: 'contemplation of the
mind-objects' is the last of the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthāna, q.v.)
dhammānusārī: the 'dhamma-devotee', is one of
the 7 noble disciples (ariya-puggala, q.v.).
dhammānussati: 'recollection of the Law', is one
of the 10 recollections (anussati, q.v.).
dhamma-patisambhidā: the 'analytical knowledge of
the law, is one of the 4 kinds of analytical knowledge (patisambhidā, q.v.).
dhamma-tthiti-ñāna: 'knowledge of the fixity of
law, is a name for that 'insight which is leading up' to the entrance into one of the 4
supermundane paths (vutthāna-gāminī-vipassanā, q.v.). In the Susima Sutta (S.
XII, 70) this (ascending) insight is called the 'knowledge of the fixity of the law',
namely: "At first, Susima, there exists the knowledge of the fixity of the law, and
later the knowledge of Nibbāna." (See Vis.M XXI.)
dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhanga: 'investigation of the
law as factor of enlightenment', is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga,
dhammāyatana: 'mind-object as base' (āyatana,
dhana: 'treasures', a term for the following 7
qualities: faith, morality, moral shame, moral dread, learning, liberality and wisdom. Cf.
A. VII, 5, 6.
See 'Treasures of the Noble', by Soma Thera
(BODHI LEAVES B. 27, BPS).
dhātu: 'elements', are the ultimate
constituents of a whole.
(I) The 4 physical elements (dhātu or mahā-bhūta),
popularly called earth, water, fire and wind, are to be understood as the primary
qualities of matter. They are named in Pāli: pathavī-dhātu, āpo-dhātu,
tejo-dhātu, and vāyo-dhātu. In Vis.M XI, 2 the four elements are defined thus:
"Whatever is characterized by hardness (thaddha-lakkkhana) is the earth or
solid-element; by cohesion (ābandhana) or fluidity, the water-element; by heating (paripācana),
the fire or heat-element; by strengthening or supporting (vitthambhana), the wind
or motion-element. All four are present in every material object, though in varying
degrees of strength. If, for instance, the earth element predominates, the material object
is called 'solid', etc. - For the analysis of the 4 elements, s. dhātu-vavatthāna.
(II) The 18 physical and mental elements that
constitute the conditions or foundations of the process of perception, are:
|1. visual organ (eye)
|2. auditory organ (ear)
|3. olfactory organ (nose)
|4. gustatory organ (tongue)
|5. tactile organ (body)
|6. visible object
|7. sound or audible object
|8. odour or olfactive object
|9. gustative object
1-10 are physical; 11-16 and 18 are mental; 17 may
be either physical or mental. - 16 performs the function of advertence (āvajjana) towards
the object at the inception of a process of sensuous consciousness; it further performs
the function of receiving (sampaticchana) the sensuous object. 18 performs, e.g.,
the function of investigation (santīrana), determining (votthapana) and
registering (tadārammana) - (for its other functions, s. Table I). For the 14
functions of consciousness, s. viññāna-kicca.
Cf. M. 115; S. XIV and especially Vibh. II (Guide p.
28f), Vis.M XV, 17ff.
Of the many further groupings of elements (enumerated in
M. 115), the best known is that of the 3 world-elements: the sensuous world
(kāma-dhātu), the fine-material world (rūpa-dhātu), the immaterial world (arūpa-dhātu);
further the sixfold group: the solid, liquid, heat, motion, space, consciousness (pathavī,
āpo, tejo, vāyo, ākāsa, viññāna; s. above I), described in M. 140; see also M.
dhātu-vavatthāna: 'analysis (or determining) of
the 4 elements', is described in Vis.M XI, 2, as the last of the 40 mental exercises (s.
bhāvanā). In a condensed form this exercise is handed down in D. 22 and M. 10 (s.
satipatthāna), but in detail explained in M. 28, 62, 140. The simile of the butcher
in M. 10 ("Just, o monks, as a skilled butcher or butcher's apprentice, after having
slaughtered a cow and divided it into separate portions, should sit down at the junction
of four highroads; just so does the disciple contemplate this body with regard to the
elements") is thus explained in Vis.M XI.: "To the butcher, who rears the cow,
brings it to the slaughter-house, ties it, puts it there, slaughters it, or looks at the
slaughtered and dead cow, the idea 'cow' does not disappear as long as he has not yet cut
the body open and taken it to pieces. As soon, however, as he sits down, after having cut
it open and taken it to pieces, the idea 'cow' disappears to him, and the idea 'meat'
arises. And he does not think: 'A cow do I sell, or 'A cow do they buy.' Just so, when the
monk formerly was still an ignorant worldling, layman or a homeless one, the ideas 'living
being' or 'man' or 'individual' had not yet disappeared as long as he had not taken this
body, whatever position or direction it had, to pieces and analysed it piece by piece. As
soon, however, as he analysed this body into its elements, the idea 'living being'
disappeared to him, and his mind became established in the contemplation of the
elements." - (App.).
dhutānga: (lit. 'means of shaking off (the
defilements)'); 'means of purification', ascetic or austere practices. These are strict
observances recommended by the Buddha to monks as a help to cultivate contentedness,
renunciation, energy and the like. One or more of them may be observed for a shorter or
longer period of time.
"The monk training himself in morality should take
upon himself the means of purification, in order to gain those virtues through which the
purity of morality will become accomplished, to wit: fewness of needs, contentedness,
austerity, detachment, energy, moderation, etc." (Vis.M II).
Vis.M II describes 13 dhutangas, consisting in the
1. wearing patched-up robes: pamsukūlik'anga,
2. wearing only three robes: tecīvarik'anga,
3. going for alms: pindapātik'anga,
4. not omitting any house whilst going for alms: sapadānikanga,
5. eating at one sitting: ekāsanik'anga,
6. eating only from the alms-bowl: pattapindik'anga,
7. refusing all further food: khalu-pacchā-bhattik'anga,
8. living in the forest: āraññik'anga,
9. living under a tree: rukkha-mūlik'anga,
10. living in the open air: abbhokāsik'anga,
11. living in a cemetery: susānik'anga,
12. being satisfied with whatever dwelling: yathā-santhatik'anga,
13. sleeping in the sitting position (and never lying down): nesajjik'anga.
These 13 exercises are all, without exception, mentioned
in the old sutta texts (e.g. M. 5, 113; A.V., 181-90), but never together in one and the
"Without doubt, o monks, it is a great advantage to
live in the forest as a hermit, to collect one's alms, to make one's robes from picked-up
rags, to be satisfied with three robes" (A.I, 30).
The vow, e.g. of No. 1, is taken in the words: "I
reject robes offered to me by householders," or "I take upon myself the vow of
wearing only robes made from picked-up rags." Some of the exercises may also be
observed by the lay-adherent.
Here it may be mentioned that each newly ordained monk,
immediately after his being admitted to the Order, is advised to be satisfied with
whatever robes, alms-food, dwelling and medicine he gets: "The life of the monks
depends on the collected alms as food ... on the root of a tree as dwelling ... on robes
made from patched-up rags ... on stale cow's urine as medicine. May you train yourself
therein all your life."
Since the moral quality of any action depends entirely
upon the accompanying intention and volition, this is also the case with these ascetic
practices, as is expressly stated in Vis.M Thus the mere external performance is not the
real exercise, as it is said (Pug. 275-84): "Some one might be going for alms; etc.
out of stupidity and foolishness - or with evil intention and filled with desires - or out
of insanity and mental derangement - or because such practice had been praised by the
Noble Ones...." These exercises are, however properly observed "if they are
taken up only for the sake of frugality, of contentedness, of purity, etc."(App.)
On dhutanga practice in modern Thailand,
see With Robes and Bowl, by Bhikkhu Khantipalo (WHEEL 82/83).
dibba-cakkhu: the 'divine eye', is one of
the 6 higher powers (abhiññā, q.v.), and one of the three kinds of knowledge (tevijjā,
dibba-loka: heavenly world; s. deva.
dibba-sota: the 'divine ear', is one of the 6
higher powers (abhiññā, q.v.).
dibba-vihāra: s. vihāra.
disappearance: vigata-paccaya, is one of
the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . disciplinary code: s. pātimokkha.
discursive thinking: vicāra; s. vitakka-vicāra.
disease: one of the 'divine messengers' (deva-dūta,
disinterestedness: (regarding the whole world): s. sabbaloke
dispensation: s. sāsana.
dissociation: vippayutta-paccaya, is one
of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) .
dissolution, contemplation of: khayānupassanā,
is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (vipassanā, q.v.).
dittha-dhamma-vedanīya-kamma: karma bearing fruit
in this present life; s. karma.
ditthi (lit. 'sight'; Ö dis, to see): view,
belief, speculative opinion, insight. If not qualified by sammā, 'right', it
mostly refers to wrong and evil view or opinion, and only in a few instances to right
view, understanding or insight (e.g. ditthi-ppatta, q.v.; ditthi-visuddhi,
purification of insight; ditthi-sampanna, possessed of insight).
Wrong or evil views (ditthi or micchā-ditthi)
are declared as utterly rejectable for being a source of wrong and evil aspirations and
conduct, and liable at times to lead man to the deepest abysses of depravity, as it is
said in A. I, 22:
"No other thing than evil views do I know, o monks,
whereby to such an extent the unwholesome things not yet arisen arise, and the unwholesome
things already arisen are brought to growth and fullness. No other thing than evil views
do I know, whereby to such an extent the wholesome things not yet arisen are hindered in
their arising, and the wholesome things already arisen disappear. No other thing than evil
views do I know, whereby to such an extent human beings at the dissolution of the body, at
death, are passing to a way of suffering, into a world of woe, into hell." Further in
A. I, 23: "Whatever a man filled with evil views performs or undertakes, or whatever
he possesses of will, aspiration, longing and tendencies, all these things lead him to an
undesirable, unpleasant and disagreeable state, to woe and suffering."
From the Abhidhamma (Dhs) it may be inferred that evil
views, whenever they arise, are associated with greed (s. Tab. I. 22, 23, 26, 27).
Numerous speculative opinions and theories, which at all
times have influenced and still are influencing mankind, are quoted in the sutta-texts.
Amongst them, however, the wrong view which everywhere, and at all times, has most misled
and deluded mankind is the personality-belief, the ego-illusion. This personality-belief
(sakkāya-ditthi), or ego-illusion (atta-ditthi), is of 2 kinds:
eternity-belief and annihilation-belief.
Eternity-belief (sassata-ditthi) is the belief in
the existence of a persisting ego-entity, soul or personality, existing independently of
those physical and mental processes that constitute life and continuing even after death.
Annihilation-belief (uccheda-ditthi), on the other
hand, is the belief in the existence of an ego-entity or personality as being more or less
identical with those physical and mental processes, and which therefore, at the
dissolution at death, will come to be annihilated. - For the 20 kinds of
personality-belief, see sakkāya-ditthi.
Now, the Buddha neither teaches a personality which will
continue after death, nor does he teach a personality which will be annihilated at death,
but he shows us that 'personality', 'ego', 'individual', 'man', etc., are nothing but mere
conventional designations (vohāra-vacana) and that in the ultimate sense (s. paramattha-sacca)
there is only this self-consuming process of physical and mental phenomena which
continually arise and again disappear immediately. - For further details, s.
"The Perfect One is free from any theory (ditthigata),
for the Perfect One has seen what corporeality is, and how it arises and passes away.
He has seen what feeling ... perception ... mental formations ... consciousness are, and
how they arise and pass away. Therefore I say that the Perfect One has won complete
deliverance through the extinction, fading away, disappearance, rejection and casting out
of all imaginings and conjectures, of all inclination to the 'vain-glory of 'I' and
'mine." (M. 72).
The rejection of speculative views and theories is a
prominent feature in a chapter of the Sutta-Nipāta, the Atthaka-Vagga.
The so-called 'evil views with fixed destiny' (niyata-micchāditthi)
constituting the last of the 10 unwholesome courses of action (kammapatha, q.v.),
are the following three: (1) the fatalistic 'view of the uncausedness' of existence (ahetukaditthi),
(2) the view of the inefficacy of action' (akiriyaditthi), (3) nihilism (natthikaditthi).
(1) was taught by Makkhali-Gosāla, a contemporary of the
Buddha who denied every cause for the corruptness and purity of beings, and asserted that
everything is minutely predestined by fate.
(2) was taught by Pūrana-Kassapa, another contemporary of
the Buddha who denied every karmical effect of good and bad actions: "To him who
kills, steals, robs, etc., nothing bad will happen. For generosity, self-restraint and
truthfulness, etc. no reward is to be expected."
(3) was taught by Ajita-Kesakambali, a third contemporary
of the Buddha who asserted that any belief in good action and its reward is a mere
delusion, that after death no further life would follow, that man at death would become
dissolved into the elements, etc.
For further details about these 3 views, s.
D. 2, M. 60; commentarial exposition in WHEEL 98/99, P. 23.
Frequently mentioned are also the 10 antinomies (antagāhikā
micchā-ditthi): 'Finite is the world' or 'infinite is the world' ... 'body and soul
are identical' or 'body and soul are different' (e.g. M. 63).
In the Brahmājala Sutta .(D.1), 62 false views are
classified and described, comprising all conceivable wrong views and speculations about
man and world.
See The All-Embracing Net of Views
(Brahmājala Sutta), tr. with Com. by Bhikkhu Bodhi (BPS).
Further s. D. 15, 23, 24, 28; M. 11, 12, 25, 60,
63, 72, 76, 101, 102, 110; A. II, 16; X, 93; S. XXI, XXIV; Pts.M.
Wrong views (ditthi) are one of the proclivities
(s. anusaya), cankers (s. āsava), clingings (s. upādāna), one of
the three modes of perversions (s. vipallāsa). Unwholesome consciousness (akusala
citta), rooted in greed, may be either with or without wrong views (ditthigata-sampayutta
or vippayutta); s. Dhs.; Tab I.
On right view (sammā-ditthi), s. magga and
M. 9 (Trans. with Com. in 'R. Und.').
ditthi-nissita-sīla: 'morality based on wrong
views'; s. nissaya.
ditthi-ppatta: the 'vision attainer', is one of
the 7 Noble Persons (ariya-puggala, q.v.).
ditthi-vipallāsa: 'perversion of views'; s.
ditthi-visuddhi: 'purification of view' is the
3rd of the 7 stages of purification (visuddhi III, q.v.).
ditth'upādāna: 'clinging to views', is one of the
4 kinds of clinging (upādāna, q.v.).
divine abode: s. vihāra.
divine ear and eye: s. abhiññā.
divine messengers, the 3: deva-dūta
doctrine of the Buddha: s. dhamma, sāsana.
dogmatic articles, the 3: titthāyatana
domanassa: lit. 'sad-mindedness', grief, i.e.
mentally painful feeling (cetasika-vedanā), is one of the 5 feelings (vedanā,
q.v.) and one of the 22 faculties (indriya, q.v.). According to the Abhidhamma,
grief is always associated with antipathy and grudge, and therefore karmically unwholesome
(akusala, q.v.) Cf. Tab. I. 30, 31.
domanassupavicāra: 'indulging in grief'; s. manopavicāra.
doors of deliverance, the 3: vimokkha-dvāra;
s. vimokkha I; visuddhi VI, 8.
dosa: 'hatred', anger, is one of the 3 unwholesome,
roots (mūla, q.v.). - d. citta: hate consciousness; s. Tab. I (30,
dosa-carita: 'angry-or hate-natured'; s. carita.
doubt, skeptical: vicikicchā (q.v.),
dread, moral: ottappa s. hiri-ottappa.
drinking: On the evil effects of drinking
intoxicants, s. surāmeraya, etc.
dry-visioned: s. sukkha-vipassaka.
duccarita: 'evil conduct', is threefold: in
deeds, words and thoughts. See kammapatha (I).
duggati: 'woeful course' (of existence); s. gati.
dukkha: (1) 'pain', painful feeling, which may be
bodily and mental (s. vedanā).
(2) 'Suffering', 'ill'. As the first of the Four Noble
Truths (s. sacca) and the second of the three characteristics of existence (s. ti-lakkhana),
the term dukkha is not limited to painful experience as under (1), but refers to
the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena which,
on account of their impermanence, are all liable to suffering, and this includes also
pleasurable experience. Hence 'unsatisfactoriness' or 'liability to suffering' would be
more adequate renderings, if not for stylistic reasons. Hence the first truth does not
deny the existence of pleasurable experience, as is sometimes wrongly assumed. This is
illustrated by the following texts:
"Seeking satisfaction in the world, monks, I had
pursued my way. That satisfaction in the world I found. In so far as satisfaction existed
in the world, I have well perceived it by wisdom. Seeking for misery in the world, monks,
I had pursued my way. That misery in the world I found. In so far as misery existed in the
world, I have well perceived it by wisdom. Seeking for the escape from the world, monks, I
had pursued my way. That escape from the world I found. In so far as an escape from the
world existed, I have well perceived it by wisdom" (A. 111, 101).
"If there were no satisfaction to be found in the
world, beings would not be attached to the world .... If there were no misery to be found
in the world, beings would not be repelled by the world .... If there were no escape from
the world, beings could not escape therefrom" (A. 111, 102).
See dukkhatā. For texts on the Truth of Suffering,
see W. of B. and 'Path'.
See The Three Basic Facts of Existence, II.
Suffering (WHEEL 191/193).
dukkhānupassanā: s. vipassanā.
dukkhatā (abstr. noun fr. dukkha): 'the
state of suffering', painfulness, unpleasantness, the unsatisfactoriness of existence.
"There are three kinds of suffering: (1) suffering as pain (dukkha-dukkhatā), (2)
the suffering inherent in the formations (sankhāra-dukkhatā), (3) the suffering
in change (viparināma-dukkhatā)" (S. XLV, 165; D. 33).
(1) is the bodily or mental feeling of pain as actual]y
felt. (2) refers to the oppressive nature of all formations of existence (i.e. all
conditioned phenomena), due to their continual arising and passing away; this includes
also experiences associated with neutral feeling. (3) refers to bodily and mental pleasant
feelings, "because they are the cause for the arising of pain when they change"
(Vis.M XIV, 34f).
dukkha-patipadā: 'painful progress'; s.
dvi-hetuka-patisandhi: s. patisandhi.
dwellings: Suitable d. for monks; s. senāsana.
Satisfied with whatever d.; s. dhutanga.
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05 November 2005