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BUDDHIST DICTIONARY

-I-

iddhi: 'power', 'magical power'. The magical powers constitute one of the 6 kinds of higher spiritual powers (abhi˝˝ā, q.v.). One distinguishes many kinds of magical powers: the power of determination (adhitthān' iddhi), i.e. the power of becoming oneself manifold; the power of transformation (vikubbana iddhi), i.e. the power of adopting another form; the power of spiritual creation (manomaya iddhi), i.e. the power of letting issue from this body another mentally produced body; the power of penetrating knowledge (˝āna-vipphara iddhi), i.e. the power of inherent insight to remain unhurt in danger; the power of penetrating concentration (samādhivippharā iddhi) producing the same result. The magical powers are treated in detail in Vis.M XII; Pts.M., Vibh. - (App.). They are not a necessary condition for final deliverance.

'Noble power' (ariyā-iddhi) is the power of controlling one's ideas in such a way that one may consider something not repulsive as repulsive and something repulsive as not repulsive, and remain all the time imperturbable and full of equanimity. This training of mind is frequently mentioned in the Suttas (e.g. M. 152, A.V. 144), but only once the name of ariyā-iddhi is applied to it (D. 28). See further Pts.M., Iddhi-kathā, Vis.M XII.

iddhi-pāda: 'roads to power' (or success) are the 4 following qualities, "for as guides, they indicate the road to power connected therewith; and because they form, by way of preparation, the roads to the power constituting the fruition of the path" (Vis.M XII), namely: "concentration of intention (chanda-samādhi) accompanied by effort of will (padhāna-sankhāra-samannāgata), concentration of energy (viriya-samādhi) ... concentration of consciousness (citta-samādhi) ... and concentration of investigation (vimamsa-samādhi) accompanied by effort of will." As such, they are supermundane (lokuttara, i.e. connected with the path or the fruition of the path; s. ariyapuggala) But they are mundane (lokiya, q.v.) as predominant factors (adhipati; s. paccaya 3), for it is said: "Because the monk, through making intention a predominant factor, reaches concentration, it is called the concentration of intention (chanda-samādhi), etc." (Vis.M XII).

"These 4 roads of power lead to the attaining and acquiring of magical power, to the power of magical transformation, to the generation of magical power, and to mastery and skill therein" (Pts.M. II. 205, PTS). For a detailed explanation, s. Vis.M XII.

"Once the monk has thus developed and often practised the 4 roads to power, he enjoys various magical powers, ... hears with the divine ear heavenly and human sounds, ... perceives with his mind the mind of other beings ... remembers many a former existence ... perceives with the divine eye beings passing away and reappearing, ... attains, after the extinction of cankers, deliverance of mind and deliverance through wisdom, free from. cankers.... (S. LI, 2). For a detailed explanation of these 6 higher powers, s. abhi˝˝ā.

"Whosoever, o monks, has missed the 4 roads to power, he has missed the right path leading to the extinction of suffering; but whosoever, o monks, has reached the 4 roads to power, he has reached the right path leading to the extinction of suffering" (S. LI, 2).

See the chapter on Iddhipāda in The Requisites of Enlightenment by Ledi Sayadaw (WHEEL 169/172).

ignorance: avijjā (q.v.); further s. paticcasamuppāda (1).

ill-humour, heavenly beings who come to grief through: mano-padosika-deva (q.v.).

ill-will: vyāpāda, is a synonym of dosa (s. mūla) and patigha and is one of the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.), 5 hindrances (nīvarana, q.v.) and 10 unwholesome courses of action (s. kammapatha, I).

image, mental: s. nimitta, samādhi, kasina.

immaterial sphere: arūpāvacara: cf. avacara, jhāna (5-8); Tab. I.

immaterial world: arūpa-loka; s. loka.

immediacy: an alternative rendering for contiguity-condition, samanatara-paccaya, which is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.)

immediate, the: ānantariya (q.v.).

immortality: s. amata.

imperfections: s. upakkilesa.

impermanence: anicca (q.v.). - Contemplation of i., cf. vipassanā (1).

impersonality of existence: s. anattā. - Contemplation of: s. vipassanā (3).

imperturbable karma-formations: āne˝jābhisankhāra; s. sankhāra.

impression, sensorial or mental: phassa (q.v.).

impulsion: javana (q.v.).

impurities: s. upakkilesa.

impurity of the body, contemplation of the: s. asubha, sīvathikā.

inclinations: s. anusaya.

independently enlightened: Pacceka-Buddha (q.v.).

indifferent feeling cf. vedanā, upekkhā.

individual: puggala (q.v.).

indriya: 'faculties', is a name for 22, partly physical, partly mental, phenomena often treated in the Suttas as well as in the Abhidhamma. They are:

6 Bases (āyatana, q.v.):

1. eye: cakkhu

2. ear: sota

3. nose: ghāna

4. tongue: jivhā

5. body: kāya

6. mind: mano

Sex (bhava, q.v.):

7. femininity: itthi

8. masculinity: purisa

9. vitality: jīvita

5 Feelings (vedanā, q. v.)

10. bodily pleasant feeling: sukha

11. bodily pain: dukkha

12. gladness: somanassa

13. sadness: domanassa

14. indifference: upekkhā

5 Spiritual Faculties (s. bala)

15. faith: saddhā

16. energy: viriya

17. mindfulness: sati

18. concentration: samādhi

19. wisdom: pa˝˝ā

3 Supermundane Faculties

20. the assurance: 'I shall know what I did not yet know!': a˝˝āta˝-˝assāmīt' indriya

21. the faculty of highest knowledge: a˝˝indriya

22. the faculty of him who knows: a˝˝ātāvindriya.

(1-5, 7-8) are physical; (9) is either physical or mental. All the rest are mental. - (14) (s. upekkhā) is here merely indifferent feeling (= adukkha-m-asukhā vedanā, i.e. 'neither pleasant nor unpleasant feeling') and not identical with that highly ethical state of equanimity (= tatramajjhattatā, i.e. 'keeping everywhere the middle', the equipoise of mind), also called upekkhā which belongs to the group of mental formations (sankhāra-kkhandha; s. Tab II). - (20) arises at the moment of entering the Sotāpatti-Path (sotāpatti-magga), (21) on reaching the Sotāpatti-Fruition (sotāpatti-phala), (22) at attaining the Arahat-Fruition (arahatta-phala). For the three last, s. ariya-puggala.

The faculties, excepting (7) and (8), form one of the 24 conditions (paccaya 16, q.v.).

In Vibh. V all these faculties are treated in the above order, whereas S. XLVIII enumerates and explains them by way of the above indicated groups, leaving only 20-22 unexplained. See Vis XVI; Path 138ff. - For the 5 spiritual faculties (15-19), s. The Way of Wisdom (WHEEL 65/66).

indriya-paccaya: s. paccaya 16.

indriya-samatta: 'equilibrium, balance, or harmony of faculties', relates to the 5 spiritual faculties: faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom (s. indriya 15-19). Of these there are two pairs of faculties, in each of which both faculties should well counter-balance each other, namely: faith and wisdom (saddhā, pa˝˝ā, q.v.) on the one hand and energy and concentration (viriya, samādhi, q.v.) on the other. For excessive faith with deficient wisdom leads to blind belief, whilst excessive wisdom with deficient faith leads to cunning. In the same way, great energy with weak concentration leads to restlessness, whilst strong concentration with deficient energy leads to indolence. Though for both faculties in each of the 2 pairs a balanced degree of intensity is desirable, mindfulness should be allowed to develop to the highest degree of strength. Cf. Vis.M III- (App.).

indriya-samvara-sīla: 'morality consisting of purity of restraint of the senses'; s. sīla.

indriyesu gutta-dvāratā: 'guarding the sense-doors' is identical with sense-control (indriya-samvara; s. sīla).

in-and-out-breathing, watching over: ānāpāna-sati (q.v.).

inducement: an alternative rendering for decisive-support condition, upanissaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya; q.v.).

indulging (in joy, sadness etc.): s. manopavicāra.

ineffective karma: s. karma.

infatuation: cf. mada, moha (s. mūla), avijjā.

inference of meaning: an 'expression the meaning of which is to be inferred': neyyattha-dhamma (q.v.). - Antonym: 'expression with an established meaning': nītattha-dhamma (s. neyyattha-dhamma).

inferiority-conceit: s. māna.

influxes (cankers), the 4: āsava (q.v.).

inoperative consciousness, karmically; s. kiriyacitta.

inseparable mental factors, the 7 i. m. f. in all consciousness: s. cetanā, phassa, nāma.

insight: cf. pa˝˝ā, vipassanā, ˝āna.

intelligent-natured: s. carita.

intention: chanda (q.v.) .

interest: pīti (q.v.); cf. Tab. II.

intimation: cf. vi˝˝atti.

intoxicants: s. āsava.

intoxicating drinks, the evil effect of taking: s. surāmeraya.

investigating function (of consciousness): santīrana; s. vi˝˝āna-kicca.

investigation, full understanding through: tīranapari˝˝ā, s. pari˝˝ā. - 'Investigation' (vīmamsā) is one of the 4 roads to power (iddhipāda, q.v.) and one of the 4 predominants (adhipati; s paccaya 3). - i. of truth: dhamma-vicaya, is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.).

iriyā-patha (lit. 'ways of movement'): 'bodily postures', i.e. going, standing, sitting, lying. In the Satipatthāna-sutta (s. satipatthāna), they form the subject of a contemplation and an exercise in mindfulness.

"While going, standing, sitting or lying down, the monk knows 'I go', 'I stand', 'I sit', 'I lie down'; he understands any position of the body." - "The disciple understands that there is no living being, no real ego, that goes, stands, etc., but that it is by a mere figure of speech that one says: 'I go', 'I stand', and so forth." (Com.).

issā: 'envy', is a karmically unwholesome (akusala) mental factor, which is occasionally associated with hate-rooted consciousness (s. Tab. I. 30, 31,). Explained in Pug. 55.

itthindriya: 'femininity'; s. bhāva.


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