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tadanga-pahāna: 'ovcrcoming by the opposite', is one of the 5 kinds of overcoming (pahāna,
tadārammana-citta: 'registering consciousness' (s. Tab. I, 40-49, 56), is the
last stage in the complete process of cognition (citta-vīthi) immediately before sinking
into the subconscious. It does not occur with the consciousness of the absorptions nor
with supermundane consciousness, but only with large or distinct objects of the sensuous
sphere. Cf. vi˝˝āna-kicca.
taints: āsava (q.v.).
talk, low: tiracchāna-kathā (q.v.).
tanhā: (lit. 'thirst'): 'craving', is the chief root of suffering, and of the
ever-continuing cycle of rebirths. "What, o monks, is the origin of suffering? It is
that craving which gives rise to ever-fresh rebirth and, bound up with pleasure and lust,
now here, now there, finds ever fresh delight. It is the sensual craving
(kāma-tanhā), the craving for existence (bhava-tanhā), the craving for
non-existence (vibhava-tanhā)'' (D. 22). T. is the 8th link in the formula
of the dependent origination (paticcasamuppāda, q.v.). Cf. sacca.
Corresponding to the 6 sense-objects, there are 6 kinds of craving craving for
visible objects, for sounds, odours, tastes, bodily impressions, mental impressions (rūpa-,
sadda-, gandha-, rasa-, photthabba-, dhamma-tanhā). (M. 9; D. 15)
Corresponding to the 3-fold existence, there are 3 kinds: craving for sensual existence
(kāma-tanhā), for fine-material existence (rūpa-tanhā), for immaterial
existence (arūpa-tanhā). (D. 33)
There are 18 'thought-channels of craving' (tanhā-vicarita) induced internally,
and 18 induced externally; and as occurring in past, present and future, they total 108;
see A. IV, 199; Vibh., Ch. 17 (Khuddakavatthu-Vibhanga).
According to the dependent origination, craving is conditioned by feeling; on this see
D. 22 (section on the 2nd Truth).
Of craving for existence (bhava-tanhā ) it is said (A. X, 62): "No first
beginning of the craving for existence can be perceived, o monks, before which it was not
and after which it came to be. But it can he perceived that craving for existence has its
specific condition. I say, o monks, that also craving for existence has its condition that
feeds it (sāharam) and is not without it. And what is it? 'Ignorance', one has to
reply." - Craving for existence and ignorance are called "the outstanding causes
that lead to happy and unhappy destinies (courses of existence)" (s. Vis.M XVII,
The most frequent synonyms of tanhā are rāga (q.v.) and lobha
tanhā-kkhaya: 'extinction of craving', is identical with 'extinction of
cankers' (āsavakkhaya) and the attainment of perfect Holiness or Arahatship. Cf. ariya-puggala.
tanhā-nissita-sīla: 'morality based on craving' (s. nissaya).
tathāgata: the 'Perfect One', lit. the one who has 'thus gone', or 'thus
come', is an epithet of the Buddha used by him when speaking of himself.
To the often asked questions, whether the Tathāgata still exists after death, or not,
it is said (e.g. S. XXII, 85, 86) that, in the highest sense (paramattha, q.v.) the
Tathāgata cannot, even at lifetime, be discovered, how much less after death, and that
neither the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.) are to be regarded as the
Tathāgata, nor can the Tathāgata be found outside these corporeal and mental phenomena.
The meaning intended here is that there exist only these ever-changing corporeal and
mental phenomena, arising and vanishing from moment to moment, but no separate entity, no
When the commentaries in this connection explain Tathāgata by 'living being' (satta),
they mean to say that here the questioners are using the merely conventional expression,
Tathāgata, in the sense of a really existing entity.
Cf. anattā, paramattha, puggala, jīva, satta.
A commentarial treatise on "The Meaning of the Word
'Tathāgata' " is included in The All-Embracing Net of Views (Brahmajāla Sutta), tr.
Bhikkhu Bodhi (BPS).
tathāgata-bala: the 'ten powers of the Perfect One'; s. dasa-bala.
tathatā: 'Suchness', designates the firmly fixed nature (bhāva) of
all things whatever. The only passage in the Canon where the word occurs in this sense, is
found in Kath. 186 (s. Guide, p. 83). On the Mahāyana term tathatā, s. Suzuki,
Awakening of Faith, p. 53f. (App.).
tatra-majjhattatā: 'equanimity, equipoise, mental balance' (lit., 'remaining
here and there in the middle'), is the name for a high ethical quality belonging to the sankhāra-kkhandha
(s. khandha) and is mostly known by the name upekkhā. In its widest sense
it is associated with all pure consciousness (s. Tab. II). "Tatra-majjhattatā
is called the 'keeping in the middle of all things'. It has as charactcristic that it
effects the balance of consciousness and mental factors; as nature (function; rasa),
that it prevents excessiveness and deficiency, or that it puts an end to partiality; as
manifestation, that it keeps the proper middle" (Vis.M XIV). (App.).
tāvatimsa: 'the Thirty-thrce (Gods)', a class of heavenly beings in the
sensuous sphere; s. deva (I).
te-cīvarik'anga: 'practice of the three-rober', is one of the ascetical means
for purificaton (dhutanga, q.v.).
tejo-dhātu: 'fire-element, heat-element'; s. dhātu.
tejo-kasina: 'fire-kasina', is one of the 10 kasina exercises; s. kasina.
temperature: utu (q.v.). - For corporeality produced by temperature, s. samutthāna.
tendencies: anusaya (q.v.).
terror, awareness of: one of the insight-knowledges; s. visuddhi VI. 3.
te-vijja: 'one endowed with the threefold (higher) knowledge'. In Brahmanism
means 'knower of the 3 Vedas' ( tri-vidyā), in Buddhism means one who has realised
3 kinds of knowledge, to wit: remembrance of former rebirths, the divine eye, extinction
of all cankers. For details, s. abhi˝˝ā, 4-6. Cf. Tevijjā Sutta, D. 13 (WHEEL
theravāda: 'Doctrine of the Elders', is a name of the oldest form of the
Buddha's teachings, handed down to us in the Pāli language. According to tradition, its
name is derived from the fact of having been fixed by 500 holy Elders of the Order, soon
after the death of the Master.
Theravāda is the only one of the old schools of Buddhism that has survived among those
which Mahāyānists have called 'Hinayāna'. It is sometimes called Southern Buddhism or
Pāli Buddhism. It is found today in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and
Chittagong (East Bengal. ) - Cf. Guide, p. 60. - (App.). thīna-middha: 'sloth and
torpor', constitute the 3rd of the 5 hindrances (nīvarana, q.v.). They may or may
not, be associated with greedy consciousness (s. Tab. 23. 25, 27, 29 and II).
thinking, wisdom based on: cintāmayapa˝˝ā: s. pa˝˝ā.
thiti-bhāgiya-sīla, -samādhi, -pa˝˝ā: 'static morality, static
concentration, static wisdom'; s. hāna-bhāgiya-sīla.
thought, thought-conception: s. vitakka.
thought, Right: sammā-sankappa; .s. sacca, magga.
ties, the 4: gantha (q.v.).
ti-hetu-patisandhika: s. patisandhi.
ti-lakkhana: the '3 charactcristies of existence', or signata, are
impermanency (anicca, q.v.), suffcring or misery (dukkha, q.v.; s. sacca,
dukkhatā), not-self (anattā, q.v.).
"Whether Perfect Ones appear in the world, or whether Perfect Ones do not appear
in the world, it still remains a firm condition, an immutable fact and fixed law: that all
formations are impermanent, that all formations are subject to suffering, that everything
is without a self'' (A. III, 134).
"What do you think, o monks: Is corporeality (rūpa) permanent or
impermanent? - Impermanent, o Venerable One. - Are feeling (vedanā), perception (sa˝˝ā),
mental formations (sankhāra) and consciousness (vi˝˝āna), permanent or
impermanent? - Impermanent, o Venerable One.
"But that which is impermanent, is it something pleasant or painful? - It is
painful, o Venerable One.
"But, of what is impermanent, painful and subject to change, could it be rightly
said, 'This belongs to me, this am I, this is my ego'? - No, Venerable One.
"'I'herefore, whatever there is of corporeality, feeling, perception, mental
formations and consciousness, whether past, present or future, one's own or external,
gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, of all these things one should understand,
according to reality and true wisdom: 'This does not belong to me, this am I not, this is
not my ego' " (S. XXII, 59).
"In one who understands eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and all the remaining
formations as impermanent, painful and not-self, in him the fetters (samyojana,
q.v.) are dissolved" (S. XXXV, 53).
It is the full comprehension of the 3 characteristics by direct meditative experience
which constitutes liberating insight. About their relation to the three gateways ot
liberation', s. vimokkha I .
For further details, s. anicca, dukkha, anattā, vipassanā.
Literature: The Three Signata, by Prof. O. H. de A. Wijesekera
(WHEEL 20). - The Three Basic Facts of Existence: I-III (WHEEL BPS), Vis.M XX, 13ff.
18ff; XXI, 47f, 67f.
ti-pitaka: ' T he Three Bascets', is the name for the 3 main divisions of
the Pāli Canon: the Basket of Discipline (Vinaya Pitaka), the Basket of Discourses (Sutta
Pitaka) and the Basket ot Philosophy (Abhidhamma Pitaka).
tiracchāna-kathā: 'low talk', lit. 'beastly talk', is the name in the
sutta-texts for the following: "Talk about kings and robbers, ministers and armies,
danger and war, eating and drinking, clothes and dwellings, garlands and scents,
relations, chariots, villages and markets, towns and districts, women and heroes, street
talks, talks by the well, talk about those departed in days gone by, tittle-tattle, talks
about world and sea, about gain and loss" (A.X, 69 etc.).
In the commentaries 4 further kinds are enumerated, thus bringing the number to 32, as
mostly counted, namely: talk about sensuous enjoyment, self-mortification, eternity and
tiracchāna-yoni: 'animal womb'; birth as animal. The animal kingdom belongs to
the sensuous world (s. loka), is one of the 4 lower worlds (s. apāya) and
one of the 3 woeful courses of existence (s. gati).
tīrana-pari˝˝ā: 'full understanding by investigating'; s. pari˝˝ā.
ti-ratana: 'Three Jewels' or Three Gems, which by all Buddhists are revered
as the most venerable things, are the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Holy Sangha.' i.e.: the
Enlightened One; the law of deliverance discovered, realized and proclaimed by him; and
the Community of Holy Disciples and those who live in accordance with the Law. - The
contemplations of the 3 Jewels belong to the 10 contemplations (anussati q.v.).
ti-sarana: 'Threefold Refuge', in which every faithful adherent of the Buddha
puts his whole trust, consists in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha (s. prec.).
The Buddha, or Enlightened One, is the teacher who by himself has discovered, realized
and proclaimed to the world the law of deliverance. The Dhamma is the law of deliverance.
The Sangha is the community of the disciples, who have realized or are striving to realize
the law of deliverance.
The 3-fold Refuge in Pāli, by the uttering of which one may also outwardly profess
one's faith, is still the same as in the Buddha's time, namely:
Buddham saranam gacchāmi
Dhammam saranam gacchāmi
Sangham saranam gacchāmi
I take my refuge in the Buddha!
I take my refuge in the Dhamma!
I take my refuge in the Sangha!
Literature: The Threefold Refuge by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 76). -
Devotion in Buddhism (WHEEL 18). Going for Refuge, by Bhikkhu Bodhi (WHEEL 282/284) - Khp.
Tr. pp. 4ff.
titthāyatana: the 3 'articles of (heretical) belief'. which in A. III,
61 are declared as leading to inactivity, are: (1) the belief that all happiness and woe
are produced through former karma (prenatal actions; s. karma); (2) that everything is
uncaused; (3) that everything is created by God.
(1) is the teaching of Niggantha-Nāthaputta, the leader of the Nigganthas, the modern
Jains. The fault with this doctrine is that it does not account for that happiness and woe
which either are the result of the present life's good or bad action, or are associated
with the corresponding action. (2) is the doctrine of Makkhali Gosāla; s. ditthi.
According to the above 3 doctrines, man is not responsible for his actions, so that all
moral exertions become useless.
torpor: thīna, s. thīna-middha (q.v.).
training, the 3-fold: sikkhā (q.v.). - The steps of: sikkhāpada, (q.v.).
trance: jhāna (q.v.).
tranquillity (of mind): s. samatha, samatha-vipassanā, bhāvanā, bojjhanga.
- 'One who has taken t. as his vehicle': samathayānika (q.v.).
tranquilisation, Overcoming (of defilements) by way of: s. pahāna.
transference of merit: patti-dāna (q.v.).
transformation, power of: s. iddhi.
transitoriness: anicca (q.v.).
treasures, the 7: s. dhana (q.v.).
tree: Living under a tree is one of the ascetical practices (dhutanga,
truths, the 4 Noble: sacca (q.v.). - 2-fold knowledge of the t.;
turning away, contemplation of the: vivattanupassanā; s.
tusita: a class of heavenly beings in the sensuous plane; s. deva
twin miracle: yamaka-pātihāriya (q.v.).
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05 November 2005