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pabbajjā: lit. 'the going forth', or more fully stated, 'the going forth from home
to the homeless life' of a monk (agārasmā anagāriyam pabbajjā), consists in
severing all family and social ties to live the pure life of a monk, in order to realize
the goal of final deliverance pointed out by the Enlightened One. Thus, p. has
become the name for admission as a sāmanera, or novice, i.e. as a candidate for
the Order of Bhikkhus, or monks.
See Going Fonh, by Sumana Samanera (WHEEL 27/28) - Ordination in
Theravāda Buddhism (WHEEL 56).
paccavekkhana-˝āna: 'retrospective knowledge', refers to the
recollected mental image obtained in concentration, or to any inner experience just
passed, as for instance, any absorption (jhāna q.v.), or any supermundane path, or
fruition of the path, etc. (s. ariya-puggala). As it is said: "At the end of
fruitional consciousness, consciousness sinks into the subconscious stream of existence (bhavanga-sota,
q.v.). Then, breaking off the stream of existence, mental advertence (manodvārāvajjana)
arises at the mind-door, for the purpose of retrospecting the (just passed)
path-moment. Now, as soon as this stage has passed, 7 moments of impulsive consciousness
(javana-citta), one after the other, flash up while retrospecting the path. After they
again have sunk into the subconscious stream, there arise, for the purpose of
retrospecting the fruition of the path the moments of advertence and impulsion, during
whose arising the monk is retrospecting the path, retrospecting the fruition,
retrospecting the abandoned defilements, retrospecting the still remaining defilements,
retrospecting Nibbāna as object .... 'This blessing have I attained' .... 'This and that
defilement still remains in me' .... 'This object have I beheld in my mind', etc."
paccavekkhana-suddhi: 'purity of reflection', is a name for wise consideration
in using the 4 requisites allowed to the monk, i.e. robes, food, dwelling, and medicine;
s. sīla (4).
paccaya: 'condition', is something on which something else, the so-called
'conditioned thing', is dependent, and without which the latter cannot be. Manifold are
the ways in which one thing, or one occurrence, may be the condition for some other thing,
or occurrence. In the Patthāna, the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka (comprising 6
large vols. in the Siamese edition), these 24 modes of conditionality are enumerated and
explained, and then applied to all conceivable mental and physical phenomena and
occurrences, and thus their conditioned nature is demonstrated.
The first two volumes of the Patthāna have been translated into English by the
Venerable U Nārada (Mūlapatthāna Sayadaw) of Burma, under the title Conditional
Relations (Published by the Pāli Text Society, London 1969, 1981). For a synopsis of this
work, see Guide VII.
The 24 modes of conditionality are:
1. Root condition : hetu paccaya
2. Object " : ārammana "
3. Predominance " : adhipati "
4. Priority " : anantara "
5. Contiguity " : samanantara "
6. Co-nascence " : sahajāta "
7. Mutuality " : a˝˝ama˝˝a "
8. Support " : nissaya "
9. Decisive Support " : upanissaya "
10. Pre-nascene " : purejāta "
11. Post-nascene " : pacchājāta "
12. Repitition " : āsevana "
13. Karma " : kamma "
14. Karma-result " : vipāka "
15. Nutriment " : āhāra "
16. Faculty " : indriya "
17. Jhāna " : jhāna "
18. Path " : magga "
19. Associaton " : sampayutta "
20. Dissociation " : vippayutta "
21. Presence " : atthi "
22. Absence " : natthi "
23. Disappearance " : vigata "
24. Non-disappearance " : avigata "
(1) Root-condition (hetu-paccaya) is that condition that resembles the root of a
tree. Just as a tree rests on its root, and remains alive only as long as its root is not
destroyed, similarly all karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental states are entirely
dependent on the simultaneity and presence of their respective roots, i.e, of greed (lobha),
hate (dosa), delusion (moha), or greedlessness (alobha),
hatelessness (adosa), undeludedness (amoha). For the definition of these 6
roots, s. mūla.
"The roots are a condition by way of root for the (mental) phenomena associated
with a root, and for the corporeal phenomena produced thereby (e.g. for bodily
(2) Object-condition (ārammana-paccaya) is called something which, as object,
forms the condition for consciousness and mental phenomena. Thus, the physical object of
sight consisting in colour and light ('light-wave'), is the necessary condition and the
sine qua non for the arising of eye-consciousness (cakkhu-vi˝˝āna), etc.; sound
('sound wave') for ear-consciousness (sotā-vi˝˝āna), etc.; further, any object
arising in the mind is the condition for mind-consciousness (mano-vi˝˝āna). The
mind-object may be anything whatever, corporeal or mental, past, present or future, real
(3) Predominance-condition (adhipati-paccaya) is the term for 4 things, on the
preponderance and predominance of which are dependent the mental phenomena associated with
them, namely: concentrated intention (chanda, q.v.), energy (viriya, q.v.),
consciousness (citta) and investigation (vīmamsā). In one and the same
state of consciousness, however, only one of these 4 phenomena can be predominant at a
time. "Whenever such phenomena as consciousness and mental concomitants are arising
by giving preponderance to one of these 4 things, then this phenomenon is for the other
phenomena a condition by way of predominance" (Patth.). Cf. iddhi-pāda.
(4-5) Proximity and contiguity (or immediacy)-condition (anantara and samanantara-paccaya)
- both being identical - refer to any state of consciousness and mental phenomena
associated with them, which are the conditions for the immediately following stage in the
process of consciousness. For example, in the visual process, eye-consciousness is for the
immediately following mindelement - performing the function of receiving the visible
object - a condition by way of contiguity; and so is this mind-element for the next
following mind-consciousness element, performing the function of investigating the object,
etc. Cf. vi˝˝āna-kicca.
(6) Co-nascence condjtion (sahajāta-paccaya), i.e. condition by way of
simultaneous arising, is a phenomenon that for another one forms, a condition in such a
way that, simultaneously with its arising, also the other thing must arise. Thus, for
instance, in one and the same moment each of the 4 mental groups (feeling, perception,
mental formations and consciousness) is for the 3 other groups a condition by way of
co-nascence or co-arising; or again each of the 4 physical elements (solid, liquid, heat,
motion) is such a condition for the other 3 elements. Only at the moment of conception in
the mother's womb does corporeality (physical base of mind) serve for the 4 mental groups
as a condition by way of conascence.
(7) Condition by way of mutuality (a˝˝āma˝˝a-paccaya). All the just
mentioned associated and co-nascent mental phenomena, as well as the 4 physical elements,
are, of course, at the same time also conditioned by way of mutuality, "just like
three sticks propped up one by another." The 4 mental groups are one for another a
condition by way of mutuality. So also are the 4 elements, and also mentality and
corporeality at the moment of conception.
(8) Support-condition (nissaya-paccaya). This condition refers either to a
pre-nascent (s. 10) or co-nascent (s. 6) phenomenon which is aiding other phenomena in the
manner of a foundation or base, just as the trees have the earth as their foundation, or
as the oil-painting rests on the canvas. In this way, the 5 sense-organs and the physical
base of the mind are for the corresponding 6 kinds of consciousness a prenascent, i.e.
previously arisen, condition by way of support. Further all co-nascent (s. 6) phenomena
are mutually (s. 7) conditioned by each other by way of support.
(9) Decisive-support (or inducement) condition (upanissaya-paccaya) is
threefold, namely (a) by way of object (ārammanūpanissaya-paccaya), (b) by way of
proximity (anantarūpanissaya), (c) natural decisive support (pakatupanissaya).
These conditions act as strong inducement or cogent reason.
(a) Anything past, present or future, corporeal or mental, real or imaginary, may, as
object of our thinking, become a decisive support, or strong inducement, to moral, immoral
or karmically neutral states of mind. Evil things, by wrong thinking about them, become an
inducement to immoral life; by right thinking, an inducement to moral life. But good
things may be an inducement not only to similarly good things, but also to bad things,
such as self-conceit, vanity, envy, etc.
(b;) is identical with proximity condition (No. 4).
(c) Faith, virtue, etc., produced in one's own mind, or the influence of climate, food,
etc., on one's body and mind, may act as natural and decisive support-conditions. Faith
may be a direct and natural inducement to charity, virtue to mental training, etc.; greed
to theft, hate to murder; unsuitable food and climate to ill-health; friends to spiritual
progress or deterioration.
(10) Pre-nascence-condition (purejāta-paccaya) refers to something previously
arisen, which forms a base for something arising later on. For example, the 5 physical
sense-organs and the physical base of mind, having already arisen at the time of birth,
form the condition for the consciousness arising later, and for the mental phenomena
(11) Post-nascence-condition (pacchā-jāta-paccaya) refers to consciousness and
the phenomena therewith associated, because they are - just as is the feeling of hunger- a
necessary condition for the preservation of this already arisen body.
(12) Repetition-condition (āsevana-paccaya) refers to the karmical
consciousness, in which each time the preceding impulsive moments (javana-citta,
q.v.) are for all the succeeding ones a condition by way of repetition and frequency, just
as in learning by heart, through constant repetition, the later recitation becomes
gradually easier and easier.
(13) Karma-condition (kamma-paccaya). The pre-natal karma (i.e karma-volitions, kamma-cetanā,
in a previous birth) is the generating condition (cause) of the 5 sense-organs, the
fivefold sense-consciousness, and the other karma-produced mental and corporeal phenomena
in a later birth. - Karmical volition is also a condition by way of karma for the
co-nascent mental phenomena associated therewith, but these phenomena are in no way
(14) Karma-result-condition (vipāka-paccaya). The karma-resultant 5 kinds of
sense-consciousness are a condition by way of karma-result for the co-nascent mental and
(15) Nutriment-condition (āhāra-paccaya). For the 4 nutriments, s.
(16) Faculty-condition (indriya-paccaya). This condition applies to 20 faculties
(indriya, q.v.), leaving out No. 7 and 8 from the 22 faculties. Of these 20
faculties, the 5 physical sense-organs (1 - 5), in their capacity as faculties, form a
condition only for uncorporeal phenomena (eye-consciousness etc.); physical vitality (6)
and all the remaining faculties, for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.
(17) Jhāna-condition (jhāna-paccaya) is a name for the 7 so-called
jhāna-factors, as these form a condition to the co-nascent mental and corporeal
phenomena, to wit: (1) thought-conception (vitakka), (2) discursive thinking (vicāra),
(3) interest (pīti), (4) joy (sukha), (5) sadness (domanassa), (6)
indifference (upekkhā), (7) concentration (samādhi). (For definition s.
Pāli terms. )
1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in 4 classes of greedy consciousness (s. Tab. I. 22-25); 1, 2,
5, 7 in hateful consciousness (ib. 30, 31); 1, 2, 6, 7 in the classes of deluded
consciousness (ib. 32, 33).
This condition does not only apply to jhāna alone, but also to the general
intensifying ('absorbing') impact of these 7 factors.
(18) Path-condition (magga-paccaya) refers to the 12 path-factors, as these are
for the karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental phenomena associated with them, a way
of escape from this or that mental constitution, namely: (1) knowledge (pa˝˝ā =
sammāditthi, right understanding), (2) (right or wrong) thought-conception
(vitakka), (3) right speech (sammā-vācā), (4) right bodily action (sammā-kammanta),
(5) right livelihood (sammā-ājīva), (6) (right or wrong) energy (viriya),
(7) (right or wrong) mindfulness (sati), (8) (right or wrong) concentration (samādhi),
(9) wrong views (micchāditthi), (10) wrong speech (micchā-vācā), (11)
wrong bodily action (micchā-kammanta), (12) wrong livelihood (micchā-ājīva).
(19) Association-condition (sampayutta-paccaya) refers to the co-nascent (s. 6)
and mutually (s. 7) conditioned 4 mental groups (khandha), "as they aid each
other by their being associated, by having a common physical base, a common object, and by
their arising and disappearing simultaneously" (Patth. Com.).
(20) Dissociation-condition (vippayutta-paccaya) refers to such phenomena as aid
other phenomena by not baving the same physical base (eye, etc.) and objects. Thus
corporeal phenomena are for mental phenomena, and conversely, a condition by way of
dissociation, whether co-nascent or not.
(2l) Presence-condition (atthi-paccaya) refers to a phenomenon - being
pre-nascent or co-nascent - which through its presence is a condition for other phenomena.
This condition applies to the conditions Nos. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11.
(22) Absence-condition (natthi-paccaya) refers to consciousness, etc., which has
just passed, and which thus forms the necessary condition for the immediately following
stage of consciousness by giving it an opportunity to arise. Cf. No. 4.
(23) Disappearance-condition (vigata-paccaya) is identical with No. 22.
(24) Non-disappearance-condition (avigata-paccaya) is identical with No. 21.
These 24 conditions should be known thoroughly for a detailed understanding of that
famous formula of the dependent origination (paticcasamuppāda, q.v.). Cf. Fund.
III, Guide p. 117 ff. (App.) .
See The Significance of Dependent Origination, by Nyanatiloka (WHEEL
paccaya-sannissita-sīla: 'morality consisting in the wise use of the
monk's requisities'; s. sīla (4).
pacceka-bodhi: 'independent enlightenment'; s. the foll. and bodhi.
pacceka-buddha: an 'Independently Enlightened One'; or Separately or
Individually (=pacceka) Enlightened One (renderings by 'Silent' or 'Private Buddha'
are not very apt). This is a term for an Arahat (s. ariya-puggala) who has realized
Nibbāna without having heard the Buddha's doctrine from others. He comprehends the 4
Noble Truths individually (pacceka), independent of any teacher, by his own effort.
He has, however, not the capacity to proclaim the Teaching effectively to others, and
therefore does not become a 'Teacher of Gods and Men', a Perfect or Universal Buddha (sammā-sambuddha).
- Paccekabuddhas are described as frugal of speech, cherishing solitude. According to
tradition, they do not arise while the Teaching of a Perfect Buddha is known; but for
achieving their rank after many aeons of effort, they have to utter an aspiration before a
Canonical references are few; Pug. 29 (defin.); A. II, 56; in M. 116, names of many
Paccekabuddhas are given; in D. 16 they are said to be worthy of a thūpa (dagoba);
the Treasure-Store Sutta (Nidhikhandha Sutta, Khp.) mentions pacceka-bodhi; the
C. Nidd. ascribes to individual Paccekabuddhas the verses of the Rhinoceros Sutta
(Khaggavisāna Sutta, Sn.) - See bodhi.
See The Paccekabuddha, by Ria Kloppenborg (WHEEL 305/307).
pacchājāta-paccaya: 'post-nascence-condition', is one of the 24
conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
pādaka-jjhāna: 'foundation-forming absorption', is an absorption used as a
foundation, or starting point, for the higher spiritual powers (abhi˝˝ā, q.v.),
or for insight (vipassanā, q.v.), leading to the supermundane paths (s. ariya-puggala).
The foundation for the former is the 4th absorption; for insight, however, any absorption
is suitable. For details, s. samatha-vipassanā. - (App.).
pada-parama: 'one for whom the words are the utmost attainment'. "Whoever,
though having learned much, speaking much, knowing many things by heart, and discoursing
much, has not penetrated the truth, such a man is called by that name" (Pug. 163).
padhāna: 'effort.' The 4 right efforts (samma-padhāna), forming the 6th
stage of the 8-fold Path (i.e. sammā-vāyāma, s. magga) are: (1) the
effort to avoid (samvara-padhāna), (2) to overcome (pahāna-padhāna), (3)
to develop (bhāvanā-padhāna), (4) to maintain (anurakkhana-padhāna), i.e.
(1) the effort to avoid unwholesome (akusala) states, such as evil thoughts, etc.
(2) to overcome unwholesome states, (3) to develop wholesome (kusala) states, such
as the 7 elements of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), (4) to maintain the wholesome
"The monk rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, unwholesome things not yet
arisen ... to overcome them ... to develop wholesome things not yet arisen ... to maintain
them, and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the
full perfection of development. And he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind
and strives" (A. IV, 13).
(1) "What now, o monks, is the effort to avoid? Perceiving a form, or a sound, or
an odour, or a taste, or a bodily or mental impression, the monk neither adheres to the
whole nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome
things might arise, such as greed and sorrow, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he
watches over his senses, restrains his senses. This is called the effort to avoid.
(2) "What now is the effort to overcome? The monk does not retain any thought of
sensual lust, or any other evil, unwholesome states that may have arisen; he abandons
them, dispels them, destroys them, causes them to disappear. This is called the effort to
(3) "What now is the effort to develop? The monk develops the factors of
enlightenment, bent on solitude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending in deliverance,
namely: mindfulness (sati), investigation of the law (dhamma-vicaya), energy
(viriya), rapture (pīti), tranquillity (passaddhi), concentraton (samādhi),
equanimity (upekkhā). This is called the effort to develop.
(4) "What now is the effort to maintain? The monk keeps firmly in his mind a
favourable object of concentration, such as the mental image of a skeleton, a corpse
infested by worms, a corpse blueblack in colour, a festering corpse, a corpse riddled with
holes, a corpse swollen up. This is called the effort to maintain" (A. IV, 14).
padhāniyanga: 'elements of effort', are the following 5 qualities: faith,
health, sincerity, energy, and wisdom (M. 85, 90; A. V. 53). See pārisuddhi-padhāniyanga.
pāgu˝˝atā: 'proficiency', namely, of mental concomitants (kāya-pāgu˝˝atā),
and of consciousness (citta-pāgu˝˝atā), are 2 mental phenomena associated with
all wholesome consciousness. Cf. Tab. II.
pahāna: 'overcoming', abandoning. There are 5 kinds of overcoming: (1)
overcoming by repression (vikkhambhana-pahāna), i.e. the temporary suspension of
the 5 hindrances (nīvarana, q.v.) during the absorptions, (2) overcoming by the
opposite (tadanga-pahāna), (3) overcoming by destruction (samuccheda-pahāna),
(4) overcoming by tranquillization (patipassaddhi-pahāna), (5) overcoming by
(1) "Among these, 'overcoming by repression' is the pushing back of adverse
things, such as the 5 mental hindrances (nīvarana q.v), etc., through this or that
mental concentration (samādhi, q.v.), just as a pot thrown into moss-clad water
pushes the moss aside....
(2) " 'Overcoming by the opposite' is the overcoming by opposing this or that
thing that is to be overcome, by this or that factor of knowledge belonging to insight (vipassanā
q.v.), just as a lighted lamp dispels the darkness of the night. In this way, the
personality-belief (sakkāyaditthi, s. ditthi) is overcome by determining
the mental and corporeal phenomena ... the view of uncausedness of existence by
investigation into the conditions... the idea of eternity by contemplation of impermanency
... the idea of happiness by contemplation of misery....
(3) "If through the knowledge of the noble path (s. ariyapuggala) the
fetters and other evil things cannot continue any longer, just like a tree destroyed by
lightning, then such an overcoming is called 'overcoming by destruction' " (Vis.M
(4) When, after the disappearing of the fetters at the entrance into the paths, the
fetters, from the moment of fruition (phala) onwards, are forever extinct and
stilled, such overcoming is called the 'overcoming by tranquillization'.
(5) "The 'overcoming by escape' is identical with the extinction and
Nibbāna" (Pts.M. I. 27). (App.).
pahāna-pari˝˝ā; s. pari˝˝ā.
pain, feeling of: s. vedanā.
pakati-sīla: 'natural or genuine morality', is distinct from those outward
rules of conduct laid down for either laymen or monks. Those later are the so-called
'prescribed morality' (pa˝˝āttisīla). Cf. sīla.
pakati-upanissaya: 'direct inducement'; s. paccaya.
palibodha: 'obstacles', is the term for the following things if they obstruct
the monk in the strict practice of a subject of meditation: a crowded monastery,
travelling, relatives, association with lay folk, gifts, pupils, repairs in the monastery,
sickness, study, magical power. The latter, however, may become an obstacle only in
developing insight (vipassanā, q.v.). See Vis.M III, 29ff. - (App.)
pamsukūlik'anga: the 'vow to wear only robes made from picked-up rags', is one
of the ascetic rules of purification; s. dhutanga.
pānātipātā veramanī: 'abstaining from the killing of living beings', is the
first of the 5 moral rules binding upon all Buddhists; s. sikkhāpada.
pa˝cadvārāvajjana: 'advertence to the 5-sense-doors'; s. vi˝˝āna-kicca.
pa˝ca-sīla: s. sikkhāpada.
pa˝ca-vokāra-bhava: 'five-group existence', is a name for existence in the
sensuous sphere (kāmāvacara), or in the fine-material sphere (rūpāvacara,
s. avacara), since all the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.) are found
there. In the immaterial sphere (arūpāvacara, s. avacara), however, only
the 4 mental groups are found, and in the world of unconscious beings (asa˝˝ā-satta,
q.v.) only the one corporeality group. Cf eka-vokāra-bhava and catu-pa˝ca-vokāra-bhava;
further s. avacara. - (App.: vokāra).
pa˝hā-byākarana: 'answering questions'. "There are, o monks, 4 ways
of answering questions: there are questions requiring a direct answer; questions requiring
an explanation; questions to be answered by counter-questions; questions to be rejected
(as wrongly put)." See D. 33; A. III, 68; A. IV, 42.
pa˝˝ā: 'understanding, knowledge, wisdom, insight', comprises a very wide
field. The specific Buddhist knowledge or wisdom, however, as part of the Noble Eightfold
Path (magga, q.v.) to deliverance, is insight (vipassanā, q.v.), i.e. that
intuitive knowledge which brings about the 4 stages of holiness and the realization of
Nibbāna (s. ariyapuggala), and which consists in the penetration of the
impermanency (anicca, q.v.), misery (dukkha, s. sacca) and
impersonality (anattā) of all forms of existence. Further details, s. under
With regard to the condition of its arising one distinguishes 3 kinds of knowledge
knowledge based on thinking (cintā-mayā-pa˝˝ā), knowledge based on learning
(suta-mayā-pa˝˝ā), knowledge based on mental development
(bhāvanā-mayā-pa˝˝ā) (D. 33).
" 'Based on thinking' is that knowledge which one has accquired through one's own
thinking, without having learnt it from others. 'Based on learning' is that knowledge
which one has heard from others and thus acquired through learning. 'Based on mental
development' is that knowledge which one has acquired through mental development in this
or that way, and which has reached the stage of full concentration" (appanā, q.v.)
Wisdom is one of the 5 mental faculties (s. bala), one of the 3 kinds of
training (sikkhā, q.v.), and one of the perfections (s. pāramī) For
further details, s. vipassanā, and the detailed exposition in Vis.M XIV, 1-32.
pa˝˝atti -sīla: 'prescribed morality', is a name for the disciplinary rules
of the monk or layman prescribed by the Buddha, as distinguished from natural or genuine
morality (pakati-sīla; s. sīla).
pa˝˝ā-vimutti: 'deliverance through wisdom' (or understanding'), signifies,
according to Com. to A.V, 142, the wisdom associated with the fruition of holiness (arahatta-phala).
In Pug. 31 and similarly in M. 70, it is said: "A monk may not have reached in his
own person the 8 liberations (=jhāna, q.v.), but through his wisdom the cankers
have come to extinction in him. Such a person is called wisdom-liberated" (pa˝˝ā-vimutta).
- Com. to Pug.: "He may be one of five persons: either a practiser of bare
insight (sukkha-vipassako, q.v.), or one who has attained to Holiness after rising
from one of the absorptions." See S. XII, 7().
The term is often linked with ceto-vimutti (q.v.), 'deliverance of mind'.
papa˝ca: (Sanskrit prapa˝ca): In doctrinal usage, it signifies the
expansion, differentiation, 'diffuseness' or 'manifoldness' of the world; and it may also
refer to the 'phenomenal world' in general, and to the mental attitude of 'worldliness'.
In A. IV, 173, it is said: "As far as the field of sixfold sense-impression extends,
so far reaches the world of diffuseness (or the phenomenal world; papa˝cassa gati); as
far as the world of diffuseness extends, so far extends the field of sixfold
sense-impression. Through the complete fading away and cessation of the field of sixfold
sense-impression, there comes about the cessation and the coming-to-rest of the world of
diffuseness (papa˝ca-nirodho papa˝ca-vupasamo)." The opposite term nippapa˝ca
is a name for Nibbāna (S. LIII), in the sense of 'freedom from samsaric diffuseness'. -
Dhp. 254: "Mankind delights in the diffuseness of the world, the Perfect Ones are
free from such diffuseness" (papa˝cābhiratā pajā, nippapa˝ca tathāgatā). -
The 8th of the 'thoughts of a great man' (mahā-purisa-vitakka; A. VIII, 30) has:
"This Dhamma is for one who delights in non-diffuseness (the unworldly, Nibbāna); it
is not for him who delights in worldliness (papa˝ca)." - For the
psychological sense of 'differentiation', see M. 18 (Madhupindika Sutta): "Whatever
man conceives (vitakketi) that he differentiates (papa˝ceti); and what he
differentiates, by reason thereof ideas and considerations of differentiation (papa˝ca-sa˝˝ā-sankhā)
arise in him." On this text and the term papa˝ca, see Dr. Kurt Schmidt in
German Buddhist Writers (WHEEL 74/75) p. 61ff. - See D. 21 (Sakka's Quest; WHEEL 10, p.
In the commentaries, we often find a threefold classification tanhā-, ditthi-,
māna-papa˝ca, which probably means the world's diffuseness created hy craving, false
views and conceit. - See M. 123; A. IV, 173; A. VI, 14, Sn. 530, 874, 916.
Đānananda Bhikkhu, in Concept and Reality: An Essay on Papa˝ca and
Papa˝ca-sa˝˝ā-sankhā (Kandy 1971, Buddhist Publication Society), suggests that the
term refers to man's "tendency towards proliferation in the realm of concepts"
and proposes a rendering by "conceptual proliferation," which appears convincing
in psychological context, e.g. in two of the texts quoted above, A. IV, 173 and M. 18. -
The threefold classification of papa˝ca, by way of craving, false views and
conceit, is explained by the author as three aspects, or instances, of the foremost of
delusive conceptualisations, the ego-concept.
parāmāsa: 'adherence', attachment, 'misapprehension', is according to
Vis.M XXII a name for wrong views; in that sense it occurs in Dhs. 1174 ff. - See sīlabbata-parāmāsa.
paramattha (-sacca, -vacana, -desanā): 'truth (or term, exposition)
that is true in the highest (or ultimate) sense', as contrasted with the 'conventional
truth' (vohāra-sacca), which is also called 'commonly accepted truth' (sammuti-sacca;
in Skr: samvrti-satya). The Buddha, in explaining his doctrine, sometimes used
conventional language and sometimes the philosophical mode of expression which is in
accordance whith undeluded insight into reality. In that ultimate sense, existence is a
mere process of physical and mental phenomena within which, or beyond which, no real
ego-entity nor any abiding substance can ever be found. Thus, whenever the suttas speak of
man, woman or person, or of the rebirth of a being, this must not be taken as being valid
in the ultimate sense, but as a mere conventional mode of speech (vohāra-vacana).
It is one of the main characteristics of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, in distinction from
most of the Sutta Pitaka, that it does not employ conventional language, but deals only
with ultimates, or realities in the highest sense (paramattha-dhammā). But also in
the Sutta Pitaka there are many expositions in terms of ultimate language (paramattha-desanā),
namely, wherever these texts deal with the groups (khandha), elements (dhātu) or
sense-bases (āyatana), and their components; and wherever the 3 characteristics (ti-lakkhana,
q.v.) are applied. The majority of Sutta texts, however, use the conventional language, as
appropriate in a practical or ethical context, because it "would not be right to say
that 'the groups' (khandha) feel shame, etc."
It should be noted, however, that also statements of the Buddha couched in conventional
language, are called 'truth' (vohāra-sacca), being correct on their own level,
which does not contradict the fact that such statements ultimately refer to impermanent
and impersonal processes.
The two truths - ultimate and conventional - appear in that form only in the
commentaries, but are implied in a sutta-distinction of 'explicit (or direct) meaning' (nītattha,
q.v.) and 'implicit meaning (to be inferred)' (neyyattha). Further, the Buddha
repeatedly mentioned his reservations when using conventional speech, e.g. in D. 9:
"These are merely names, expressions, turns of speech, designations in common use in
the world, which the Perfect Qne (Tathāgata) uses without misapprehending them." See
also S. I. 25.
The term paramattha, in the sense here used, occurs in the first para. of the
Kathāvatthu, a work of the Abhidhamma Pitaka (s. Guide, p. 62). (App: vohāra).
The commentarial discussions on these truths (Com. to D. 9 and M. 5) have not yet been
translated in full. On these see K N. Jayatilleke, Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge
(London, 1963), pp. 361ff.
In Mahāyana, the Mādhyamika school has given a prominent place to the teaching of the
paramī = pāramitā: 'perfection'. Ten qualities leading to Buddhahood: (1)
perfection in giving (or liberality; dāna-pāramī), (2) morality (sīla-p.),
(3) renunciation (nekkhamma-p.), (4) wisdom (pa˝˝ā-p.), (5) energy (viriya-p.),
(6) patience (or forbearance; khanti p.), (7) truthfulness (sacca-p.), (8)
resolution (adhitthāna-p.), (9) loving-kindness (mettā-p.) (10) equanimity
These qualities were developed and brought to maturity by the Bodhisatta in his
past existences, and his way of practising them is illustrated in many of the Birth
Stories (Jātaka), of which, however, only the verses are regarded as canonical. Apart
from the latter, the 10 pāramī are mentioned in only two other canonical works
which are probably apocryphal, the Buddhavamsa (in the Story of Sumedha) and the
Cariyapitaka. A long and methodical exposition of the pāramī is given in the
concluding Miscellaneous Section (pakinnakakathā) of the Com. to Cariyapitaka
In Vis.M IX it is said that through developing the 4 sublime states (loving-kindness,
compassion, altruistic joy, equanimity; s. brahma-vihāra), one may reach these 10
"As the Great Beings (mahā-satta; a synonym often found in the Mahāyana
scriptures for Bodhisatta (q.v.), i.e. 'Enlightenment Being or Being destined for
Buddhahood) are concerned about the welfare of living beings, not tolerating the suffering
of beings, wishing long duration to the higher states of happiness of beings, and being
impartial and just to all beings, therefore (1) they give alms (dāna, q.v.) to all
beings so that they may be happy, without Investigating whether they are worthy or not.
(2) By avoiding to do them any harm, they observe morality (sīla q.v.). (3) In
order to bring morality to perfection, they train themselves in renunciation (nekkhamma).
(4) In order to understand clearly what is beneficial and injurious to beings, they purify
their wisdom (pa˝˝ā). (5) For the sake of the welfare and happiness of others
they constantly exert their energy (viriya). (6) Though having become heroes
through utmost energy, they are nevertheless full of forbearance (khanti) toward s
the manifold failings of beings . (7) Once they have promised to give or do something,
they do not break their promise ('truthfulness'; sacca). (8) With unshakable
resolution (adhitthāna) they work for the weal and welfare of beings. (9) With
unshakable kindness (mettā) they are helpful to all. (10) By reason of their
equanimity (upekkhā) they do not expect anything in return" (Vis.M IX. 24).
In the Mahāyana scriptures, where the pāramī occupy a much more prominent
place, a partly differing list of six is given: liberality, morality, patience, energy,
meditation. and wisdom.
Literature: Ten Jataka Stories (illustrating the 10 pāramī), by
I. B. Horner (London 1957, Luzac & Co.); Buddhavamsa & Cariyapitaka. tr. by I. B.
Horner (Minor Anthologies III, Sacred Books of the Buddhists. PTS). - Narada Thera, The
Buddha & His Teachings, Ch. 41; Parami (BPS) - The treatise on the perfections from
the Com. to Cariyapitaka has been translated in The Discourse on the All-Embracing Net of
Views (Brahmajala Sutta, with Com.). tr. by Bhikkhu Bodhi (BPS) .
paranimmita-vasavatti-deva: 'heavenly beings with power over the
productions of others', constitute a class of heavenly beings in the sensuous sphere (kāma-loka).
Māra (q.v.) is said to be their ruler. Cf. loka, deva I.
parassa ceto-pariya-˝āna: 'penetration of the mind of others', is one of the
higher powers (abhi˝˝ā, q.v.).
paricchinnākāsa-kasina: 'limited-space kasina' = space kasina; s. kasina.
parihāna-dhamma: 'liable to decline'. "Now, someone reaches the
attainments (absorptions: jhāna, q.v.) of the fine-material or immaterial sphere
(s. avacara). But he does not reach them according to his wish, and not without
trouble and exertion; and not according to his wish with regard to place, object and
duration, does he enter them, or rise therefrom. Therefore it is well possible that such a
monk, through negligence, may lose these attainments. Such a person is said to be liable
to decline" (Pug. 5).
parikamma: 'preparatory-moment': s. javana.
parikamma-nimitta: 'preparatory image'; s. nimitta, kasina.
parikamma-samādhi: 'preparatory concentration', is the initial and still
undeveloped concentration of mind; s. samādhi.
parinibbāna: 'full Nibbāna', is a synonym for Nibbāna; this term, therefore,
does not refer exclusively to the extinction of the 5 groups of existence at the death of
the Holy One, though often applied to it. Cf. nibbāna.
pari˝˝ā: 'full understanding', full comprehension. There are 3 kinds of
mundane f.u. (lokiya-p.), namely: full understanding of the known (˝āta-p.),
f.u. as investigating (tīrana-p.), and f.u. as overcoming (pahāna-p.) In
Vis.M XX, 3 it is said:
"Full understanding of the known is the knowledge consisting in the discernment of
the specific characteristics of such and such phenomena, as: 'Corporeality has the
characteristic of being oppressed; feeling has the characteristic of being felt, etc.'
"Full understanding by investigating is that insight-wisdom (vipassanā-pa˝˝ā;
s. vipassanā), which has the 3 general characteristics (impermanence,
suffering, not-self) as its objects, and which arises when attributing a general
characteristic to (physical and mental) phenomena, as for instance: 'Corporeality is
impermanent, feeling is impermanent, etc.'
"Full understanding by overcorning is that insight-wisdom which has the above
mentioned general characteristics as its objects, and arises after overcoming the idea of
permanence, etc." - (App.).
pārisuddhi-padhāniyanga: the 4 'elements of the effort for purity', are:
effort for purity of morality (sīla-parisuddhi-padhāniyanga), for purity of mind (citta),
of view (ditthi), of deliverance (vimutti). Cf. A. IV, 194. - Another 9
factors are enumerated in D. 34, namely the 7 'stages of purification (s. visuddhi)
and the effort for purity of (higher) knowledge (vijjā-p.-p.) and of deliverance (vimutti-p.-p.).
pārisuddhi-sīla: 'morality consisting in purity', is fourfold: restraint
with regard to the monks' Disciplinary Code, sense restraint, purity of livelihood,
morality with regard to the monks' 4 requisites; for details, s. sīla.
parittābha and paritta-subha are 2 classes of heavenly beings of the
fine-material sphere; s. deva (II).
pariyatti: 'learning the doctrine', the 'wording of the doctrine'. In the
'progress of the disciple' (q.v.), 3 stages may be distinguished: theory, practice,
realization, i.e. (1) learning the wording of the doctrine (pariyatti), (2)
practising it (patipatti), (3) penetrating it (pativedha) and realising its
pasāda-rūpa: 'sensitive corporeality', is a name for the 5 physical
sense-organs responding to sense-stimuli. Cf. āyatana.
passaddhi-sambojjhanga: 'tranquillity, as factor of enlightenment', consists in
tranquillity of mental factors (kāya-passaddhi) and tranquillity of consciousness (citta-passaddhi).
Cf. bojjhanga; further Tab. II.
patched-up robes, the practice of wearing: is one of the ascetic rules of
purification (dhutanga, q.v.).
path and not-path, the knowledge and vision regarding: s. visuddhi
pathavī-dhātu: 'earth-element'. or 'solid element'. It is cognizable through
the sensations of pressure, touch, cold, heat. pain, etc. - About the 4 elements. s. dhātu,
khandha (I. A.).
pathavī-kasina: 'earth-kasina' (s. kasina).
path-condition: magga-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
path-knowledge, the 4 kinds of: s. visuddhi (VII).
path-result (fruition): phala (q.v.).
patibhāga-nimitta: s. nimitta, kasina, samādhi.
patibhāna-patisambhidā: the 'analytical knowledge of ready wit': s. patisambhidā.
paticcasamuppāda: 'dependent origination', is the doctrine of the
conditionality of all physical and psychical phenomena, a doctrine which, together with
that of impersonality (anattā q.v.), forms the indispensable condition for the
real understanding and realization of the teaching of the Buddha. It shows the
conditionality and dependent nature of that uninterrupted flux of manifold physical and
psychical phenomena of existence conventionally called the ego, or man, or animal, etc.
Whereas the doctrine of impersonality, or anattā, proceeds analytically, by
splitting existence up into the ultimate constituent parts, into mere empty, unsubstantial
phenomena or elements, the doctrine of dependent origination, on the other hand, proceeds
synthetically, by showing that all these phenomena are, in some way or other,
conditionally related with each other. In fact, the entire Abhidhamma Pitaka, as a whole,
treats really of nothing but just these two doctrines: phenomenality - implying
impersonality and conditionality of all existence. The former or analytical method is
applied in Dhammasangani, the first book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka; the latter or
synthetical method, in Patthāna, the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. For a synopsis
of these two works, s. Guide I and VII.
Though this subject has been very frequently treated by Western authors, by far most of
them have completely misunderstood the true meaning and purpose of the doctrine of
dependent origination, and even the 12 terms themselves have often been rendered wrongly.
The formula of dependent origination runs as follows:
1. Avijiā-paccayā sankhārā: "Through ignorance are conditioned the
sankhāras," i.e. the rebirth-producing volitions (cetanā), or
2. Sankhāra-paccayā vi˝˝ānam: "Through the karma-formations (in the
past life) is conditioned consciousness (in the present life)."
3. Vi˝˝āna-paccayā nāma-rūpam: "Through consciousness are conditioned
the mental and physical phenomena (nāma-rūpa)," i.e. that which makes up our
so-called individual existence.
4. Nāma-rūpa-paccayā salāyatanam: "Through the mental and physical
phenomena are conditioned the 6 bases," i.e. the 5 physical sense-organs, and
consciousness as the sixth.
5. Salāyatana-paccayā phasso: "Through the six bases is conditioned the
(sensorial mental) impression."
6. Phassa-paccayā vedanā: "Through the impression is conditioned
7. Vedanā-paccayā tanhā: "Through feeling is conditioned craving."
8. Tanhā-paccayā upādānam: "Through craving is conditioned
9. Upādāna-paccayā bhavo: "Through clinging is conditioned the process
of becoming," consisting in the active and the passive life process, i.e. the
rebirth-producing karma-process (kamma-bhava) and, as its result, the
10. Bhava-paccayā jāti: "Through the (rebirth-producing karma-) process of
becoming is conditioned rebirth."
11. Jāti-paccayā jarāmaranam, etc.: "Through rebirth are conditioned old
age and death (sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair). Thus arises this whole mass
of suffering again in the future."
The following diagram shows the relationship of dependence between three successive
||1. Ignorance (avijjā)
2. Karma-formations (sankhārā)
5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10
||3. Consciousness (vi˝˝āna)
4. Mind & Matter (nāma-rūpa)
5. Six Bases (āyatana)
6. Impression (phassa)
7. Feeling (vedanā)
5 results: 3-7
|8. Craving (tanhā)
9. Clinging (upādāna)
10. Process of Becoming (bhava)
5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10
||11. Rebirth (jāti)
12. Old Age and Death (jarā-marana)
5 results: 3-7
Before taking up the study of the following exposition, it is suggested that the reader
first goes thoroughly through the article on the 24 conditions (s. paccaya). For a
thorough understanding of the paticcasamuppāda he should know the main modes of
conditioning, as decisive support, co-nascence, pre-nascence, etc.
For a closer study of the subject should be consulted: Vis.M XVII; Fund. III; Guide
(Ch. VII and Appendix); Dependent Origination, by Piyadassi Thera (WHEEL 15); The
Significance of Dependent Origination (WHEEL 140).
(1.) "Through ignorance are conditioned the karma-formations" (avijjā-paccayā
sankhārā), i.e. all wholesome and unwholesome actions (karma, q.v.) of body, speech
and mind, are conditioned through ignorance. By 'karma-formations' are meant karmically
wholesome and unwholesome volitions (cetanā), or volitional activities, in short
karma (q.v., and Fund. II).
In view of the many misconceptions current in the West, it is necessary to repeat here
that karma (q.v.), as a technical term, never signifies anything but moral or immoral
action, i.e. the above mentioned volitional activities, or karma-formations, as either
causing results in the present life or being the causes of future destiny and rebirth.
Thus karma, as a philosophical term, never means the result of action, as often wrongly
conceived by Western authors.
Now, in what way are the karma-formations conditioned through ignorance? As concerns
the unwholesome karmaformations associated with greed, hate or delusion (lobha, dosa,
moha), these are always and in all circumstances, conditioned through the simultaneous
ignorance inseparably associated therewith. Thus, ignorance is for the unwholesome
karma-formations a condition by way of conascence (sahajāta-paccaya), association (sampayutta-paccaya),
presence (atthi-paccaya), etc. Ignorance further may be for them a condition by way
of decisive support or inducement (upanissaya-paccaya), if, for instance, ignorance
coupled with greed induces a man to commit evil deeds, such as killing, stealing, unlawful
sexual intercourse, etc. In these cases, therefore, ignorance is a 'natural decisive
suppport' or 'direct inducement' (pakati-upanissaya-paccaya). It also may become an
indirect inducement, by way of object (ārammanūpanissaya-paccaya) of our
thinking. This takes place, if, for example, someone remembers a former state of ignorance
combined with sensual enjoyment, and in doing so karmically unwholesome states spring up,
such as sensual desire, grief, etc.
For the wholesome (kusala) karma-formations, ignorance can only be a condition
by way of decisive support (upanissaya), never by way of co-nascence (sahajāta),
etc., since wholesome consciousness at that very moment, of course, cannot be associated
with any unwholesome phenomenon, such as ignorance. Ignorance is a 'natural decisive
support' or 'direct inducement' (pakatupanissaya), for example, if, induced by
ignorance and vanity, one exerts oneself to attain the absorptions, and thus finally,
through perseverance, reaches these wholesome states of mind. Ignorance may also be for
wholesome karma-formations a 'decisive support' or 'inducement by way of object' (ārammanūpanissaya),
if, for example, one refleets on ignorance as the root of all misery in the world, and
thus finally attains insight and entrance into one of the 4 supermundane paths of
For ignorance, s. avijjā; for karma-formations, s. sankhāra.
(2.) "Through the karma-formations is conditioned consciousness" (sankhāra-paccayā
vi˝˝ānam). This proposition teaches that the wholesome and unwholesome
karma-formations are the causes of future rebirth in an appropriate sphere (gati).
The karma-formations of the previous life condition the budding in a new mother's womb of
a fresh psycho-physical aggregation of the 5 groups of existence (s. khandha), which
here are represented by consciousness (vi˝˝āna). All such karma-resultant
(vipāka) consciousness, however, such as eye-consciousness (seeing), etc., as well as
all the mental phenomena associated therewith (feeling, etc.), are karmically neutral. It
should be understood that already from the very first moment of conception in the mother's
womb, this karma resultant eonsciousness of the embryonic being is functioning.
Against Dr. Paul Dahlke's misconception of the paticcasamuppāda as "one
single karmical moment of personal experience," and of the 'simultaneity' of all the
12 links of this formula, I should like to state here distinctly that the interpretation
of the p. given here as comprising 3 successive lives not only agrees with all the
different schools of Buddhism and all the ancient commentaries, but also is fully
identical with the explanations given already in the canonical suttas. Thus, for example,
it is said verbatim in Nidāna-Samyutta (S. XII, 51): "Once ignorance (1) and
clinging (9) are extinguished, neither karmically meritorious, nor demeritorious, nor
imperturbable karma-formations (2=10) are produced, and thus no consciousness (3=11) will
spring up again in a new mother's womb." And further: "For, if consciousness
were not to appear in the mother's womb, would in that case mentality and corporeality (4)
arise?" Cf. above diagram.
The purpose of the Buddha in teaching the p. was to show to suffering mankind
how, depending on ignorance and delusion, this present existence and suffering has come
about, and how through extinction of ignorance, and of the craving and clinging
conditioned thereby, no more rebirth will follow, and thus the standstill of the process
of existence will have been realized and therewith the extinction of all suffering.
(3.) "Through consciousness are conditioned corporeality and mentality" (vi˝˝āna-paccayā
nāma-rūpani). This proposition implies that without consciousness there ean be no
mental and physical process of existence. By mentality (nāma) is here to be
understood the karma-resultant (vipāka) mental phenomena, such as feeling
(vedanā), perception (sa˝˝ā), volition (cetanā: non-karmical
volition is here meant), consciousness-impression (phassa), advertence (manasikāra)
(M. 9; S. XII, 2). For the basic 7 mental phenomena inseparably associated with every
state of consciousness, s. nāma. By corporeality (rūpa) is meant the 4
physical elements (s. dhātu) and the corporeality dependent thereon (s.
Mentality is always conditioned through consciousness; i.e. consciousness (vi˝˝āna)
is for mentality (nāma) a condition by way of conascence (sahajāta), mutuality
(a˝˝ama˝˝a), association (sampayutta), etc., since the 4 mental groups
at all times form an inseparable unit.
Consciousness (vi˝˝āna) is for corporeality (rūpa) a condition by way
of co-nascence only at the moment of conception, thereafter a condition by way of
post-nascence (pacchājāta-paccaya; paccaya 11) and nutriment (āhāra), i.e.
as a support. Just as the repeatedly arising hunger is a condition and support for the
pre-arisen body, so is the conseiousness arising afterwards a condition and support for
the maintenance of this pre-arisen body.
(4.) "Through mentality and corporeality are conditioned the 6 bases (nāma-rūpa
paccayā salāyatanam). The 6 bases are a name for the 5 physical sense-organs and, as
6th, the mind-base (manāyatana), i.e. consciousness.
Mentality (nāma; s. 3) is for the 5 physical bases (āyatana), or
sense-organs, a condition by way of post-nascence. Cf. end of 3.
Mentality (nāma), i.e. feeling. etc., is for the 6th base, or consciousness -
as being always inseparably associated therewith a condition by way of co-nascencc. etc.
Corporeality (rūpa), here the 4 elements, are for the 5 physical bases (āyatana),
or sense-organs, a condition by way of support (nissaya).
Corporeality (rūpa), here the 5 physical sense-organs, are for the 6th base (āyatana),
i.e. consciousness, a condition by way of support and pre-nascence (purejāta-paccaya).
(5.) "Through the 6 bases is conditioned the (sensorial and mental)
impression" (salāyatana-paccayā phasso), for without the 5 physical bases,
or sense-organs, there can be no sense-impressions; and without the 6th base, or
consciousness, there can be no mental impression.
Thus, the 5 physical bases, eye, etc., are for the corresponding 5 sense-impressions
(visual impression, etc.) a condition by way of support (nissaya) and pre-nascence
(purejāta), whereas the 6th, the mind-base (consciousness), is for the mental
impression a condition by way of co-nascence, association, mutuality, etc.
(6.) "Through impression is conditioned feeling" (phassa-paccayā
vedanā), i.e. the sensorial and the mental impressions are for the feeling associated
therewith a condition by way of co-nascence, association, mutuality, etc.
(7.) "Through feeling is conditioned craving" (vedanā-paccayā tanhā). Any
(karma-resultant) feeling, whether agreeable, disagreeable or neutral, bodily or mental,
past or expected, may become for craving a condition of decisive support by way of object (ārammanūpanissaya).
Even physically and mentally painful feeling may, through the desire to be released
therefrom, become for craving a condition of decisive support by way of object (ārammanupanissaya).
(8.) "Through craving is conditioned clinging" (tanhā-paccayā
upādānam). 'Clinging' is explained as an intensified form of craving. It is of 4
kinds: (1) clinging to sensuality, (2) to erroneous views, (3) to rules and ritual, (4) to
personality-belief. Sensuous craving is to (1) a condition of natural decisive support (pakatupanissaya).
For (2-4), craving is a condition by way of co-nascence, mutuality, root (hetu), etc.
It also may be a condition of natural decisive support. For example, through craving for
heavenly rebirth, etc. people often may be induced to cling to certain rules and rituals,
with the hope of reaching thereby the object of their desires.
(9.) "Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming" (upādāna-paccayā
bhavo), i.e. the wholesome and unwholesome active karma-process of becoming
(kamma-bhava), as well as the karma-resultant (vipāka) passive process, the
so-called 'rebirth-process' (upapatti-bhava). The karma-process (kammabhava) comprises
the 5 karmical causes: ignorance, karma-formations, craving, clinging, karma-process (s.
1, 2, 8, 9, 10, of the diagram); the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava) comprises the
5 karma-results (s. 3-7 of the diagram).
The karma-process is here, correctly speaking, a collective name for generative karmic
volition (kamma-cetanā) and all the mental phenomena associated therewith, whilst
the 2nd link (karma-formations) designates only karmic volition (s. āyūhana).
Both, however, i.e. the 2nd and 10th proposition, practically state one and the same
thing, namely, that karma is the cause of rebirth, as we shall see under 10.
Clinging (upādāna) may be an inducement of decisive support (upanissaya)
to many kinds of wholesome and unwholesome karma. Sensuous clinging (kāmūpādāna), i.e.
clinging to sensuous objects, for example, may be a direct inducement to murder, theft,
unlawful intercourse with the other sex, evil words and thoughts, etc. Clinging to rules
and ritual (sīlabbatūpādāna) may lead to self-complacency, fanaticism, cruelty,
etc. Clinging is also for the evil karma associated therewith, a condition by way of
co-nascence, association, etc.
(10.) "Through the process of becoming is conditioned rebirth" (bhava-paccayā
jāti), i.e. through the wholesome and unwholesome karma-process (kamma-bhava)
is conditioned the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava). The 2nd and 10th propositions,
as already pointed out, practically teach one and the same thing, namely, that karma is
the cause of rebirth; in other words, that the karmical volition (cetanā) is the
seed out of which springs the new life, just as from the mango-seed is generated the new
Hence, the 5 karmical causes (ignorance, etc.) of the past birth are the condition for
the karma-results of the present birth; and the 5 karmical causes of the present birth are
the condition for the 5 karma-results of the next birth (s. diagram). As it is said in
"Five causes were there in the past,
Five fruits we find in present life;
Five causes do we now produce,
Five fruits we reap in future life."
Now, just as in this process of continually changing mental and bodily phenomena,
nothing can be found that would pass from one moment to the next moment, so also there is
no enduring entity, ego, or personality, within this process of existence that would
transmigrate from one life to the next (s. nāma-rūpa, anattā, patisandhi, khandha). "No
being and no living soul passed from the former life to this life, and yet this present
embryo could not have entered into existence without the preceding causes" (Vis.M
XVII). "Many things may serve to illustrate this fact, as for example the echo, the
light of a lamp, the impression of a seal, or the image produced by a mirror" (ib.).
"Whosoever is in the dark with regard to the conditionally arisen things, and does
not understand that karma originates from ignorance, etc., he thinks that it must be his
ego that knows or does not know, acts and causes to act, and that arises at rebirth. Or he
thinks that the atoms, or a creator, with the help of this embryonic process, must have
formed this body, or that it is the ego endowed with faculties that has impressions,
feels, desires, clings, continues and enters again into existence in a new birth. Or he
thinks that all beings have been born through fate, or fortuitously" (Vis.M XVII).
Now, on hearing that Buddhism teaches that everything whatever in the world is
determined by conditions some might come to the conclusion that Buddhism teaches some sort
of fatalism, and that man has no free will, or that will is not free.
The problem 'whether man has a free will' does not exist for, the Buddhist, since he
knows that, apart from these everchanging mental and physical phenomena, no such entity as
'man' can be found, and that 'man' is merely a name not relating to any reality. And the
question, 'whether will is free', must be rejected for the reason that 'will', or
volition, is a mental phenomenon flashing forth only for a moment, and that as such it had
not any existence at the preceding moment. For of a thing which is not, or is not yet, one
cannot, properly speaking, ask whether it is free or unfree. The only admissible question
would be whether the arising of 'will' is independent of conditions, or whether it is
conditioned. But the same question would equally apply also to all the other mental
phenomena, as well as to all physical phenomena, in other words: to everything and every
occurrence whatever. And the answer would be: whether will arises, or whether feeling
arises, or whether any other mental or any physical phenomenon arises, the arising of
anything whatsoever is dependent on conditions, and without conditions nothing ever can
arise or enter into existence.
According to Buddhism, everything mental or physical happens in accordance with laws
and conditions; and if it were otherwise, chaos and blind chance would reign. But such a
thing is impossible and contradicts all laws of thinking. Cf. Fund. III (end).
(11.) "Through rebirth are conditioned old age and death" (jātipaccayā
jarā-maranam). Without birth there can be no old age and death, no suffering and
misery. Thus rebirth is to old age and death, etc. a condition by way of decisive support (upanissaya).
The Buddha has said (D. 15): "Profound, Ananda. is this dependent origination,
and profound does it appear. It is through not understanding, not penetrating, this law
that this world resembles a tangled ball of thread, a bird's nest, a thicket of sedge or
reed, and that man does not escape from the lower states of existence, from the course of
woe and perdition, suffering from the round of rebirth." And further (M. 28): 'Whoso
understands the dependent origination understands the Dhamma; and whoso understands the
Dhamma understands the dependent origination."
patience, or forbearance (khanti): one of the 10 perfections (pāramī,
patigha: - 1. In an ethical sense, it means: 'repugnance', grudge, resentment,
anger, and is a synonym of vyāpāda, 'ill-will' (s. nīvarana) and dosa,
'hate' (s. mūla). It is one of the proclivities (anusaya, q.v.).
2. '(Sense-) reaction'. Applied to five-sense cognition, p. occurs in the
(a) as patigha-sa˝˝ā, 'perception of sense-reaction', said to be absent in
the immaterial absorptions (s. jhāna 5). Alternative renderings:
(b) as patigha-samphassa, '(mental) impression caused by 5fold sensorial
reaction' (D. 15); s. phassa;
(c) as sappatigha-rūpa, 'reacting corporeality', and appatigha, 'not
reacting', which is an Abhidhammic classification of corporeality, occurring in Dhs. 659,
1050. Sappatigha are called the physical sense-organs as reacting (or responding)
to sense stimuli; and also the physical sense-objects as impinging (or making an impact)
on the sense-organs. All other corporeality is appatigha, non-reacting and
non-impinging. These 2 terms have been variously rendered as resistant and not, responding
and not, with and without impact.
pātihāriya: 'miracle', marvel. Three marvels are ascribed to the Buddha: the
marvel of magic (iddhi-p.), the marvel of mind-reading (ādesanā-p.) and
the marvel of instruction (anusāsanī-p.). In D. 11, the Buddha says that he sees
danger in the first two and therefore abhors them. In A. III, 61, the 'marvel of
instruction' is called the one 'more noble and sublime'. For iddhi-pātihāriya, see D.
25. See also yamakapātihāriya.
patikkūla-sa˝˝ā: s. kāyagatā-sati.
pātimokkha: 'Disciplinary Code', is the name of the code of monk's rules, which
on all full-moon and new moon days is recited before the assembled community of fully
ordained monks (bhikkhu).
See The Patimokkha, Romanized Pāli text and transl. by Đānamoli
Thera (Bangkok 1966, Mahāmakut Buddhist Bookshop).
pātimokkha-samvara-sīla: 'morality consisting in restraint with regard
to the Disciplinary Code' (Pātimokkha, s. prec.). For details, s. sīla.
patinissaggānupassanā: 'contemplation on abandonment', is one of the 18
kinds of insight (vipassanā q.v.). Further cf. the 16th exercise of anapana-sati
patipadā: 1. 'Road', 'path'; for instance in dukkhanirodha-gāminī-patipadā,
'the road leading to the extinction of suffering' (= 4th Noble Truth); majjhima-patipadā,
'the Middle Way'.
2. 'Progress' (see also the foll. article). There are 4 modes of progress to
deliverance: (1) painful progress with slow comprehension (dukkhā patipadā
dandhābhi˝˝ā), (2) painful progress with quick comprehension, (3) pleasant
progress with slow comprehension, (4) pleasant progress with quick comprehension. In A.
IV, 162 it is said:
(1) "Some person possesses by nature excessive greed, excessive hate, excessive
delusion, and thereby he often feels pain and sorrow; and also the 5 mental faculties, as
faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom (s. indriya 15-19) are dull in
him; and by reason thereof he reaches only slowly the immediacy (ānantariya, q.v)
to the cessation of all cankers.
(2) Some person possesses by nature excessive greed, etc., but the 5 mental faculties
are sharp in him and by reason thereof he reaches quickly the immediacy to the cessation
of all cankers ....
(3) "Some person possesses by nature no excessive greed, etc., but the 5 mental
faculties are dull in him, and by reason thereof he reaches slowly the immediacy to the
cessation of all cankers ....
(4) 'Some person possessess by nature no excessive greed, etc., and the mental
faculties are sharp in him, and by reason thereof he reaches quickly the immediacy to the
cessation of all cankers ....
See A. IV, 162, 163, 166-169; Dhs. 176ff; Atthasālini Tr. I, 243; 11,
patipadā-˝ānadassana-visuddhi: 'purification by knowledge and vision
of the path-progress' forms the 6th stage of purification (visuddhi, q.v.).
patipannaka: 'path-attainer', is he who had reached one of the 4 supermundane
paths of holiness (s. ariya-puggala). - (App.)
patipatti: practice, or 'pursuance' of the teaching, as distinguished from the
mere theoretical knowledge of its wording (pariyatti, q.v.).
patipassaddhi-pahāna: 'overcoming (of defilements) by tranquillization' (s. pahāna).
patisambhidā: 'analytical knowledge' or 'discrimination', is of 4 kinds:
analytical knowledge of the true meaning (attha-patisambhidā), of the law (dhamma-patisambhidā),
of language (nirutti-patisambhidā), of ready wit (patibhāna-patisambhidā).
As an alternative rendering of the fourth term (patibhāna), Bhikkhu
Đānamoli proposes: perspicuity (in expression and knowledge).
1. The analytical knowledge of the meaning (attha-p.) is the knowledge with
regard to the sense.
2. The analytical knowledge of the law (dhamma-p.) is the knowledge with regard
to the law.
3. The analytical knowledge of language (nirutti-p.) is the knowledge of the
language with regard to those former 2 things.
4. The analytical knowledge of ready-wit (patibhāna-p.) is the knowledge about
the (former 3) kinds of knowledge" (Vibh. XV).
"(1) attha (Sanskrit artha, Í ar, to
reach; result, meaning, purpose, true substance) designates, in short, the fruit (phala)
of a cause (hetu); for since the fruit of a cause results from adhering to the
cause, and is reached and effected thereby, therefore it is called result (attha).
In particular, however, 5 things are considered as attha, namely: everything
dependent on conditions, Nibbāna, the meaning of words, karma-result, and functional
consciousness. When anyone reflects on that meaning any knowledge of his, falling within
the category concerned with meaning (or result), is the 'analytical knowledge' of meaning.
"(2) dhamma (Sanskrit dharma, Í dhar,
to bear; bearer, condition, law, phenomenon, thing) is, in short, a name for condition (paccaya)....
In particular, however, 5 things are considered as dhamma, namely: every cause (hetu)
producing a result, the noble path, the spoken word, the karmically wholesome, the
karmically unwholesome. When anyone reflects on that law, any knowledge of his, falling
within the category concerned with law (or cause), is the 'analytical knowledge' of the
In Vibh. it is further said: 'The knowledge of suffering is the 'analytical knowledge'
of the true meaning (attha-patisambhidā), the knowledge of its origin is the
'analytical knowledge' of the law (dhamma-patisambhidā). The knowledge of the
cause is the 'analytical knowledge' of the law (dhamma-patisambhidā), the
knowledge of the result of the cause is the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning (attha-patisambhidā)...
That the monk knows the law, the sunas etc. this is called the 'analytical knowledge' of
the law (dhamma-patisambhidā); if however, he understands the meaning of this or
that speech... it is called the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning
(3) " 'The knowledge of the language concerning those things' means: the
language corresponding to reality, and the unfailing mode of expression concerning the
true meaning and the law.
(4) " 'Knowledge about the kinds of knowledges' is that knowledge which has all
knowledges as object and considers them. Or, the analytical knowledge of ready wit (patibhāna-patisambhidā)
means the knowledge of the above mentioned 3 kinds of knowledge, in all their details,
with their objects, functions, etc." (Vis.M XIV).
On the 7 qualities leading to the attainment of the 4 'analytical knowledge' , s. A.
VII, 37 - See Vis.M XIV, 21ff; Vibh. XV; Pts.M. Patisambhidā Kathā.
patisandhi: lit. 'reunion, relinking', i.e. rebirth, is one of the 14 functions
of consciousness (vi˝˝āna-kicca, q.v.). It is a karma-resultant type of
consciousness and arises at the moment of conception i.e. with the forming of new life in
the mother's womb. Immediately afterwards it sinks into the subconscious stream of
existence (bhavangasota, q.v.), and conditioned thereby ever and ever again
corresponding states of subconsciousness arise. Thus it is really rebirth-consciousness
that determines the latent character of a person.
"Neither has this (rebirth-) consciousness transmigrated from the previous
existence to this present existence, nor did it arise without such conditions, as karma,
karma-formations, propensity, object, etc. That this consciousness has not come from the
previous existence to this present existence, yet that it has come into existence by means
of conditions included in the previous existence, such as karma (q.v.), etc., this fact
may be illustrated by various things, such as the echo, the light of a lamp, the
impression of a seal, or the image produced by a mirror. For just as the resounding of the
echo is conditioned by a sound, etc., and nowhere a transmigration of sound has taken
place, just so it is with this consciousness. Further it is said: 'In this continuous
process, no sameness and no otherness can be found.' For if there were full identity
(between the different stages), then also milk never could turn into curd. And if there
were a complete otherness, then curd could never come from milk.... If in a continuity of
existence any karma-result takes place, then this karma-result neither belongs to any
other being, nor does it come from any other (kamma), because absolute sameness and
otherness are excluded here" (Vis, XVII 164ff).
In Mil. it is said:
"Now, Venerable Nāgasena, the one who is reborn, is he the same as the one who
has died, or is he another?"
"Neither the same, nor another" (na ca so na ca a˝˝o).
"Give me an example."
"What do you think, o King: are you now, as a grown-up person, the same that you
had been as a little, young and tender babe? "
"No, Venerable Sir. Another person was the little, young and tender babe, but
quite a different person am I now as a grown-up man . " . . .
"... Is perhaps in the first watch of the night one lamp burning, another one in
the middle watch, and again another one in the last watch?"
"No, Venerable Sir. The light during the whole night depends on one and the same
"Just so, o King, is the chain of phenomena linked together. One phenomenon
arises, another vanishes, yet all are linked together, one after the other, without
interruption. In this way one reaches the final state of consciousnes neither as the same
person. nor as another person.''
According to the nature of their rebirth consciousness, beings divide into the
following 3 groups:
1. ahetu-patisandhika: a 'being reborn without rootconditions', is a being whose
consciousness at the moment of rebirth was not accompanied by any of the 3 noble
rootconditions, viz. greedlessness, hatelessness, undeludedness (s. mūla), i.e.
selflessness, kindness, intelligence. Such beings are found in the 4 lower worlds (apāya,
q.v.), in which case the function of rebirth is exercised by the class of
consciousness listed in Tab. I as No. 56. But if such beings are born in the sensuous
sphere as humans, they will be crippled, blind, deaf, mentally deficient, etc.
(Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. I, No. 41)
2. dvihetu (or duhetu)-patisandhika: a 'being reborn with only 2 (noble)
root-conditions', i.e. greedlessness and hatelessness. (Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. I,
Nos. 44, 45, 48 or 49.)
3. tihetu-patisandhika: a 'being reborn with 3 (noble) rootconditions'. Such a
being can be found only among men. (Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. 1, Nos. 42, 43, 46, or
47) and higher heavenly beings.
On these 3 types of rebirth, See Atthasālini Tr. 11, 354 - 379. (App.: patisandhika).
In the suttas, the terms for rebirth are chiefly punabbhava (q.v.),
'renewed existence', and abhinibbatti 'arising'; or both combined as punabbhavābhinibbatti.
- (App.: patisandhi).
Literature Vis.M XVII, 133f, 164f, 189f, 289f; Vis.M XIX, 22f. -
Karma and Rebirth, by Nyanatiloka Thera (WHEEL 9). - The Case for Rebirth, by Francis
Story (WHEEL 12/13). - Survival and Karma in Buddhist Perspective, by K. N. Jayatilleke
(WHEEL 141/143). - Rebirth Explained, by V. F. Gunaratna (WHEEL 167/169).
patisankhāna-bala and bhāvanā-bala: 'power of reflection', and
'power of mental development'. About these 2 powers it is said in A. II, 10:
"What, o monks, is the power of reflection? If, o monks, someone thinks thus: 'Bad
conduct in deeds, words and thoughts verily bears bad fruits both in this life, as well as
in the next life', and in consequence of this consideration, he abandons bad conduct in
deeds, words and thoughts, follows good conduct, and keeps his heart pure, this, o monks,
is the power of reflection.
"What, o monks, is the power of mental development? If, o monks, a monk develops
the factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), bent on solitude, on detachment, on
extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: mindfulness, investigating of the law,
energy, rapture, tranquillity, concentration, and equanimity, this, o monks, is the power
of mental development."
patisankhānupassanā-˝āna: 'knowledge consisting in reflective
contemplation"; is one of the 9 knowledges constituting the 'purification by
knowledge and vision of the path-progress' (patipadā-˝ānadassanavisuddhi; s. visuddhi
VI), and one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (mahāvipassanā; s. vipassanā).
pativedha: 'penetration', signifies the realization of the truth of the
Dhamma, as distinguished from the mere acquisition of its wording (pariyatti), or
the practice (patipatti) of it, in other words, realization as distinguished from
theory and practice. Cf. pariyatti.
patta-pindik'anga: the 'exercise of the bowl-eater', is one of the 13 ascetic
purification-exercises (dhutanga, q.v.), consisting in the vow of using only the
alms-bowl for eating, and the rejection of any other vessel.
patti-dāna: lit. 'giving of the acquired', i.e. 'transference of merit.' Though
in the older texts very seldom mentioned (e.g. A VII, 50), it is, however, a widespread
custom in all Buddhist countries. It is presumed that moral merit, especially that
acquired through giving alms, can be transferred to others, apparently for the reason that
one's own good deeds may become to others, especially to departed relatives and friends
reborn in the ghost realm, an inducement to a happy and morally wholesome state of mind.
Transference of merit is advocated (though without mentioning the term patti-dāna)
in the Tirokudda Sutta (Khp. and Petavatthu) and its Com. (Khp. Tr.). It is one of the ten
'bases of meritorious action' (pu˝˝akiriyavatthu, q.v.), called there pattānuppadāna.
See 'The Doctrine of Reversible Merit by F. L. Woodward. Buddhist Review
(London), Vol. I (1914), p. 38.
penetration s. pativedha, pariyatti. - For the power of
penetrating (vipphāra) knowledge and concentration, s. iddhi. - For
morality combined with penetration (nibbedha), s. hāna-bhāgiya-sīla, etc.
- For penetration (pariya) of the mind of others, s. abhi˝˝ā.
perfections, the 10: pāramī (q.v.).
perfect one, the: tathāgata (q.v.).
performance and avoidance: cāritta-vāritta (q.v.).
permanency, idea of: s. vipallāsa.
personality: s. sakkāya. For personality-belief, s. sakkāya ditthi,
ditthi, attā, satta, puggala, vipallāsa.
perversions, the 4: vipallāsa (q.v.).
peta (Sanskrit preta): lit. 'departed spirit', ghost; s. loka.
petti-visaya: 'ghost realm'; s. loka.
phala: lit. 'fruit'. - 1. result, effect (often together with hetu,
cause ); 2. benefit (e.g. in Sāma˝˝a-phala Sutta, 'The Results, or Benefits, of
Recluseship'; D. 2).
As 'path-result', or 'fruition', it donotes those moments of supermundane consciousness
which flash forth immediately after the moment of path-consciousness (s. ariya-puggala)
and which, till the attainment of the next higher path, may during the practice of insight
(vipassanā, q.v.) still recur innumerable times. If thus repeated, they are called
the 'attainment of fruition (phalasamāpatti), which is explained in detail in
phassa (fr. phusati, to touch): 'sense-impression', contact. The term samphassa
is used in compounds, e.g. in the following: '"T'here are 6 classes of
sense-impression: visual impression (cakkhu-samphassa), impressions of hearing,
smelling, tasting, bodily (tactile) impression and mental impression" (M. 9). A
twofold division occurs in D. 15: patigha (q.v.) -samphassa, impression by
sensorial reaction', and adhivacana-samphassa, verbal (or conceptual, i.e. mental)
Phassa does not signify physical impact, but is one of the 7 constant mental
concomitants of consciousness (cetasika) and belongs to the group of mental
formations (sankhāra-kkhandha). In lists of both these categories it is generally
mentioned first (e.g. Dhs. 1: M. 9), due to its fundamental position in the cognitive
process In M. 18 it is thus defined: "Dependent on the eye and the forms,
eye-consciousness arises; the coming-together of the three is sense-impression"
(similarly stated in the case of the other 5 senses, including mind). In the dependent
origination, it is conditioned by the six sense-bases and is a conditioning factor of
feeling (s. paticca-samuppāda 5, 6). Its relation to mind-and-body (nāma-rūpa)
is described in D. 15, and its influence on feeling and wrong views, in D. 1 (at the end).
- It is one of the 4 nutriments (āhāra, q.v.), and the first factor in the pentad
of sense-impression (phassa-pa˝camaka), together with feeling, perception,
volition and consciousness (see Abh. St., p. 47ff ).
Being a key function in the mind's contact with the world of objects and being a
potential source of defilements, sense-impression is an important subject for reflective
insight contemplation as succinctly formulated in many verses of the Sn.: 736/7, 778, 851,
picked-up rags, wearing robes made from: s. dhutanga.
pindapātik'anga: The 'practice of going for alms', is one of the 13 ascetic
purification-exercises (s. dhutanga).
pīta-kasina: 'yellow-kasina', is one of the kasina-exercises; s. kasina.
pīti: rapture, enthusiasm (rendered also by joy, happiness); interest it is one
of the mental factors or concomitants (cetasika) and belongs to the group of mental
formations (sankhāra-kkhandha). As, in sutta texts, it is often linked in a
compound word. with 'gladness' (pāmojja) or 'happiness' (sukha), some
Western translations have wrongly taken it as a synonym of these two terms. Pīti,
however, is not a feeling or a sensation, and hence does not belong to the feeling-group (vedanā-kkhandha),
but may be described psychologically as 'joyful interest'. As such it may be
associated with wholesome as well as with unwholesome and neutral states of consciousness.
A high degree of rapture is characteristic of certain stages in meditative
concentration, in insight practice (vipassanā) as well as in the first two
absorptions (jhāna, q.v.). In the latter it appears as one of the factors of
absorption (jhānanga; s. jhāna) and is strongest in the 2nd absorption.
Five degrees of intensity in meditative rapture are described in Vis.M IV. 94ff. It is
one of the factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.).
planes of existence, the 3: s. avacara.
pleasantness, idea of: s. vipallāsa, subhanimitta.
pondering: s. vīmamsā.
post-nascence: pacchājāta-paccaya, one of the 24 conditions
postures, the 4 bodily: iriyāpatha (q.v.).
powers, the 5 spiritual: s. bala. - For the 6 higher p., s. abhi˝˝na.
For the 10 p. of a Buddha, s. dasabala. - For the 4 roads to p., s. iddhipāda.
For magical p., s. iddhi.
practice: For theory, practice and realization, s. pariyatti.
predominance and pre-nascence: adhipati, purejāta, are 2 of the 24
conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
preparatory concentration (and preparatory image, etc.): s. samādhi, javana.
prescribed moral rules: pa˝˝atti-sīla (q.v.).
proclivities: s. anusaya.
produced corporeality: nipphanna-rūpa (q.v.).
productive (or regenerative) karma; s. karma.
proficiency (of mental factors and consciousness): pāgu˝˝atā (q.v.)
progress: s. patipadā, abhabbagamana - p. in morality, etc., s. hānabhāgiya,
etc. - Purification by knowledge and vision of path-progress, s. visuddhi (VI). - p.
of the disciple, s. foll.
progress of the disciple, Gradual development of the Eightfold Path in the: In
many suttas occurs an identical passage that outlines the gradual course of development in
the progress of the disciple. There it is shown how this development takes place
gradually, and in conformity with laws, from the very first hearing of the doctrine, and
from germinating faith and dim comprehension, up to the final realization of deliverance.
"After hearing the law, he is filled with confidence, and he thinks: 'Full of
hindrances is household life, a refuse heap; but the homeless life (of a monk) is like the
open air. Not easy is it, when one lives at home, to fulfill in all points the rules of
the holy life. How if now I were to cut off hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go
forth from home to the homeless life?' And after a short time, having given up his
possessions, great or little, having forsaken a circle of relations, small or large, he
cuts off hair and beard, puts on the yellow robe, and goes forth from home to the homeless
Having thus left the world, he fulfills the rules of the monks. He avoids the killing
of living beings and abstains from it; without stick or sword, conscientious, full of
sympathy, he is desirous of the welfare of all living beings. He avoids stealing ...
avoids unchastity ... avoids lying ... tale-bearing ... harsh language ... vain talk.
"He abstains from destroying vegetal germs and plants; eats only at one time of
the day; keeps aloof from dance, song, music and the visiting of shows; rejects floral
adornment, perfumes, ointment, as well as any other kind of adornment and embellishment.
High and gorgeous beds he does not use. Gold and silver he does not accept ... keeps aloof
from buying and selling things ....
"He contents himself with the robe that protects his body, and with the alms-bowl
with which he keeps himself alive. Wherever he goes, he is provided with these two things,
just as a winged bird in flying carries its wings along with him.
"By fulfilling this noble domain of morality (sīla) he feels in his heart
an irreproachable happiness."
In what follows thereafter it is shown how the disciple watches over his 5 senses and
his mind, and by this noble restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara) feels in his
heart an unblemished happiness; how in all his actions he is ever mindful and clearly
conscious; and how, being equipped with this lofty morality (sīla), and with this
noble restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara), and with mindfulness and clear
consciousness (sati-sampaja˝˝a), he choses a secluded dwelling, and freeing his
mind from the 5 hindrances (nīvarana, q.v.) he reaches full concentration (samādhi,
q.v.); and how thereafter, by developing insight (vipassanā q.v.) with regard
to the impermanency (anicca), misery (dukkha) and impersonality (anattā,
q.v.) of all phenomena of existence, he finally realizes deliverance from all cankers
and defilements, and thus the assurance arises in him:
"For ever am I liberated,
This is the last time I am born,
No new existence waits for me."
Cf. D.1, 2f; M. 27, 38, 51, 60, 76; A. IV, 198; X, 99: Pug. 239, etc.
proximity: anantara, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
pubbenivāsānussati: 'remembrance of former births', is one of the higher
powers (abhi˝˝ā, q.v.), and a factor of threefold knowledge (tevijja,
puggala: 'individual', 'person', as well as the synonyms: personality,
individuality, being (satta), self (attā), etc., in short all terms
designating a personal entity, hence also: I, you, he, man, god, etc., all these,
according to Buddhism, are mere names for certain combinations of material and mental
processes, and apart from them they have no real existence. They are to be considered as
mere 'conventional modes of expression' (vohāra-vacana), and on that level they
may be used, and are so used in the sutta texts, if taken "without misapprehending
them" (s. quote from D. 9 under paramattha). With such tacit reservations, the
term puggala occurs quite frequently in the suttas.
In the ultimate sense (paramattha, q.v.), however, there exist only
ever-changing physical and mental phenomena, flashing up and dying every moment. - Kath.,
in its first section, discusses the question whether "in the absolute sense, any
personality (puggala) can be found" (s. Guide, pp. 62ff). - See paramattha,
pūjā: (1) honour, respect, homage, (2) worship, devotional observances,
devotional offerings; also offerings to monks.
(1) The Mahā-mangala Sutta (Sn. 259) says that "Honour and respect towards those
worthy of it, is conducive to great blessing" (pūjā ca pūjaniyesu etam mangalam
uttamarn). See Dhp. 195f.
(2) The Buddha did not think much of mere outer worship. "Not thus, Ananda, is the
Tathāgata respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped and honoured in the highest degree.
But, Ananda, whatsoever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, lay man or lay woman, abides by the
Teaching, lives uprightly in the Teaching, walks in the way of the Teaching, it is by him
that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped and honoured in the
highest degree" (D. 16). - "There are two kinds of worship: in a material way (āmisa-pūjā)
and through (practice of) the Dhamma (dhamma-pūjā). The worship through
(practice of) the Dhamma is the better of the two" (A. II).
punabbhava: lit.: re-becoming; 'renewed existence', is a sutta term for
'rebirth', which, in later literature mostly is called patisandhi (q.v.). The
attainment of Sainthood (arahatta), implying the end of future rebirths, is often
expressed in the words: "This is the last birth. Now there is no more a renewed
existence!" (natthi 'dāni punabbhavo) (M. 26; D. 15; Therag. 87, 339; Sn.
502). - The term is often linked with abhinibbatti ('arising').
"But how, o brother, does it come to renewed existence and arising in the future (āyatim
punabbhavābhinibbatti)? Because beings, obstructed by ignorance and fettered by
craving, find ever fresh delight now here, now there, for this reason there is renewed
existence and arising in the future" (M. 43). See also S.XII. 38. Abhinibbatti
also stands sometimes alone in signifying 'rebirth', e.g. in A. VI, 61; X, 65.
Cf., in the 2nd Truth, the adj. ponobhavika, 'leading to renewed existence'.
See A. III, 76; Sn. 163, 273, 514, 733; S. VII, 12; X, 3.
pu˝˝a: merit, meritorious, is a popular term for karmically wholesome (kusala)
action. Opposite terms: apu˝˝a, 'demerit'; pāpa, 'bad', 'evil', The value
of meritorious action is often stressed, e.g., in the Treasure Store Sutta (s. Khp. Tr.),
Dhp 18, 118, 122. - The Community of Holy Monks (ariya-sangha), the third Refuge
(s. ti-sarana), is said to be "the incomparable field of merit in the
world" (anuttaram pu˝˝akkhettam lokassa); s. anussati 3. The Arahats,
however, having transcended all life-affirming and rebirth-producing actions, are said to
be "beyond merit and demerit"; see Sn. 520, 547, 636, 790. - See foll. 3
pu˝˝ābhisankhāra: 'meritorious karma-formations' of the sensuous and
fine-material sphere; s. sankhāra I. 1.
pu˝˝ā-dhārā: 'streams of merit'. It is said that one produces 4 streams of
merit by offering the 4 requisites (robes, almsfood, dwelling, medicine) to a monk who has
reached the conditionless deliverance of mind; further by being filled with unshakable
faith in the Buddha, his doctrine and community of disciples, and by being perfect in
morality (A. IV, 51, 52). A. VIII, 39 describes 4 further streams of merit.
pu˝˝a-kiriya-vatthu: 'bases of meritorious action'. In the suttas, 3 are
mentioned consisting of giving (liberality; dāna-maya-p.), of morality (sīla-maya-p.)
and of mental development (meditation; bhāvanā-maya-p.). See D. 33; It. 60; expl.
in A. VIII, 36.
Commentaries have a list of ten (dasa p.) which is very popular in Buddhist
countries: (1)-(3) as above, (4) reverence (apaciti), (5) service (veyyāvacca),
(6) transference of merit (pattānuppadāna), (7) rejoicing in others' merit (abbhānumodana),
(8) expounding the Doctrine (desanā), (9) listening to the Doctrine (savana),
(10) straightening one's right views (rectification of views; ditthujukamma). -
Expl. in Atthasālini Tr. 209ff.
See 'The Advantages of Merit', by Bhikkhu Khantipalo (BODHI LEAVES B.
pure abodes: suddhāvāsa (q.v.).
purejāta-paccaya: 'pre-nascence', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
purification, the 7 stages of; s. visuddhi.
purisindriya: 'Virility'; s. bhāva, khandha.
purity, the elements of the effort for: pārisuddhipadhāniyanga (q.v.).
puthujjana: lit.: 'one of the many folk', 'worldling', ordinary man, is any
layman or monk who is still possessed of all the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.)
binding to the round of rebirths, and therefore has not yet reached any of the 4 stages of
holiness (s. ariya-puggala).
"Whoso is neither freed from the 3 fetters (personality-belief, sceptical
doubt, attachment to mere rule and ritual), nor is on the way to lose these 3 things, such
a one is called a worlding" (Pug. 9).
According to Com. to M. 9, a 'worlding' may be (1) an outsider (a non-Buddhist) who, if
he believed in moral causation, may be said to have right view to that extent; but he has
not the 'knowledge conforming to the Truths' (saccānulomika-˝āna), as has (2)
the 'worldling inside the Buddha's Dispensation' (sāsanika). A worlding who
professes Buddhism, may be either a 'blind worldling' (andha-p.) who has neither
knowledge of, nor interest in the fundamental teaching (the Truths, groups, etc.); or he
is a 'noble worldling' (kalyāna-p.), who has such knowledge and earnestly strives
to understand and practise the Teaching. - See Atthasālini Tr. II, 451 (tr. by 'average
man'); Com. to M. 1, D. 1.
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05 November 2005